APUSH Chapter 18

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1848 Election

open race election so the previous president was not running for his second term. Whigs decided to run Zachary Taylor who was a previous war hero. Democrats put up Lewis Cass and the free soil party ran Martin Van Buren. Zachary Taylor won but he died into his term and Millard Fillmore his running mate replaced him.

Popular Sovereignty

the legitimacy of the state is determined by the will or the consent of the people for political matters. Popular Sovereignty was used before the civil war that when territories were becoming states could vote whether to be a free or a slave state.

Gold Rush

Gold rush in California that brought thousands to the newly claimed California territory. California quickly became a state in 1850 along with the compromise of 1850. San Francisco grew from a little town to a booming city in a very short amount of time. People came to California from all over the world struck up a relationship with the Chinese people.

Free Soil Party

short lived political party in the USA that was active in the elections of 1848 and 1852. It was a third party and gained most strength from New York. Consisted of former anti-slavery members from Democratic and Whig parties. Its main purpose was to oppose the expansion of slavery in the western territories in any new territories. When the party died it was mostly swallowed up by the Republic Party.

Underground Railroad

secret route of safe houses used in the 19th century by black slaves escaping slavery in the south to head north with the aid of abolitionists. Harriet Tubman primary leader of slaves made 13 missions back and forth via.

Compromise of 1850

package of five bills sent in September 1850. It defused a four year confrontation between the southern slave states and the northern Free states following the Mexican American War. Drafted by Whig Henry Clay and brokered by Democrat Stephen Douglas it temporarily avoided secession or civil war at the time and it quieted a sectional conflict for 4 years.

Twilight of the "immortal trio"

The congressional debate of 1850 was called to address the possible admission of California to the Union and threats of secession by southerners. Known as the "immortal trio," Henry Clay, John Calhoun, and Daniel Webster spoke at the forum.

Henry Clay

the "Great Pacificator," proposed a series of compromises. He suggested that the North enact a stricter fugitive-slave law.

John Calhoun

the "Great Nullifier," proposed to leave slavery alone, return runaway slaves, give the South its rights as a minority, and restore the political balance. His view was that two presidents would be elected, one from the South and one from the North, each yielding one veto.

Daniel Webster

proposed that all reasonable compromises should be made with the South and that a new fugitive-slave law be formed. Although, he was against slavery and he supported Wilmot Proviso, because he felt that cotton could not grow in the territories gained from the Mexican-American War.

Seventh of March speech

Daniel Webster's speech one of his most famous. Stated he wasn't a northern or southern but an American, it supported the compromise of 1850 which included the fugitive slave law. Huge loss of popularity from this speech in the north

Stephen Douglass

Democratic nominee in 1860 lost to Abraham Lincoln from Illinois. Douglas defeated Lincoln in the run for senate with a series of famous debates called the Lincoln Douglas Debates. Nicknamed "little giant" because he was short but he was a giant in politics. Largely responsible for the Compromise of 1850 and reopened the slavery subject with the Kansas-Nebraska Act which allowed people of this territory to vote via popular sovereignty.

William Seward

Governor of New York, united states senator and served as secretary of state under Andrew Johnson and Abraham Lincoln. Opposed spread of slavery and dominant republican figure. Opposed the Compromise of 1850.

Civil War in 1850

The compromise of 1850 and the effects it had on the north and south. How the north the union from one point of view won the civil war from all of the different evens that occurred with secession and slavery.

1852 election

In many ways a replay of election of 1844. President ran was a Whig but died into the term and was seceded by VP Millard Fillmore. In this case Franklin Pierce who was a democrat ran against Winfield Scott who was a Whig. Pierce being the dark horse beat Fillmore who was previously president and Winfield Scott.

Demise of the Whig Party

Election of 1852 marked the beginning of then end. Deaths of Henry Clay and Daniel Webster weakened the party severely. When compromise of 1850 came out it fractured the Whigs with pro and anti slavery lines and with the anti slavery line having enough power to deny the election of 1852 in favor of Fillmore. During Kansas Nebraska act southern Whigs generally supported it while northern Whigs strongly opposed it northern Whigs like Lincoln joined the new Republican Party while southern Whigs joined the Know Nothing Party.

Gadsden Purchase

Region of present day southern Arizona and New Mexico purchased by the USA from Mexico in a treaty signed by President Franklin Pierce. Last major addition to the territorial acquisition by the US.

Kansas-Nebraska Act

1854. Created territories of Kansas and Nebraska and repealed the compromise of 1820. it allowed settlers in these territories to determine if slave or free by popular sovereignty. The initial purpose of it was to create opportunities for a mid-eastern transcontinental railroad. Though became problematic when popular sovereignty was added into the proposal. Designed by Sen. Stephen Douglas of Illinois. It ended up dividing the nation and pointed it toward civil war. The act itself virtually nullified the Missouri Compromise of 1820 and the Compromise of 1850. The turmoil over the act split both the Democratic and Whig parties and gave rise to the Republican Party, which split the United States into two major political camps, North (Republican) and South (Democratic).

Republican Party

Founded by anti-slavery activists in 1854. Mixed group of anti-slaver Whigs and Free Soil Democrats who opposed the Kansas-Nebraska Act.

Clayton-Bulwer Treaty

1850. Treaty between the US and the UK to build a Nicaragua canal connecting the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Negotiated by John Clayton and Sir Henry Bulwer in 1850. The canal never ended up occurring instead years later the Panama Canal took its place.

Ostend Manifesto

1854. Document written in 1854 stating that the US should claim Cuba from Spain and if refused the US would declare war. Was never acted upon.

Treaty of Kanagawa

concluded between Commodore Matthew C. Perry of the U.S. Navy and the Tokugawa shogunate. The treaty opened the Japanese ports of Shimoda and Hakodate to United States trade and guaranteed the safety of shipwrecked U.S. sailors; however, the treaty did not create a basis for establishing a permanent residence in these locations. The treaty did establish a foundation for the Americans to maintain a permanent consul in Shimoda. The arrival of the fleet would trigger the end of Japan's 200 year policy of seclusion

Treaty of Wanghia

a diplomatic agreement between the US and the Qing Dynasty of China. People see it as an unequal treaty.

Matthew Perry's mission to Japan

the Commodore of the U.S. Navy who compelled the opening of Japan to the West with the Convention of Kanagawa in 1854.

Christiana, Pa. 1851

In 1851, Christiana was the site of the Christiana riot, in which the local residents defended a fugitive slave. The resulting trial resulted in the first nationally-covered challenge to the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850.

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