Work during the Scientific Revolution was partially based on this: __________ ___________. With the artists' desires to imitate nature, they relied on a close observation of nature with the study of natural phenomena.
The preserve of an intelectual elite, hermetic and alchemical thought was seen as a single intellectual framework.
Leonardo da Vinci's impacts
1.) His study of the human body was used as a basis for some scientists' works.
2.) The development of his war machines.
The Merchants' influence
The development of new technologies such as the microscope and telescope led to new scientifical discoveries.
Christian-Prolemaic geocentric views of the universe
The belief that the Earth was the center of the universe; saying the universe was cocentric spheres with a fixed or motionless center. They believed that all other planets and the sun revolved around the Earth. Also, the Earth was seen as imperfect and always changing.
Basically: the suggestion of the theory of the sun as the middle of the universe, rather than the sun.
Copernicus and Heliocentric Theory
With his 'On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres,' he said that the universe consisted of 8 spheres, and the sun was fixed motionless at the center with the planets revolving around it in circles.
The Flaws in Copernicus's work
1.) He created uncertainty about the human role in the universe and God's location.
2.) He claimed the orbits of the planets were circular, which they couldn't be.
Obstacles faced by Medieval scientists
1.) They were tied to the works of Galen, Ptolemy, and Aristotle, limiting their own searches for information, and it lead their work to be inaccurate.
2.) They had a lack of a questioning philosophy.
Brahe's contributions to the Scientifical Revolution
He was the teacher of Kepler, and Kepler learned from his studies at the Uranbory Castle. He rejected the Aristotelian- Ptolemaic system, AND rejected Copernicus's idea of a moving Earth.
Kepler and Heliocentric Theory
Three laws of planetory physics, which were:
1.) The first law rejected Copernicus by showing the orbits of the planets as elliptical with the sun at the focus of the ellipse.
2.) The second law stated that the speed of a planet is greater when closer to the sun, and decreases as distance from the sun increases.
3.) The third law stated that the planet's period of revolution is proportional to the cube of it's average distance from the sun.
Galileo and Heliocentric Theory
1.) The discovery of the principle of Inertia.
2.) Discovered the phases of Venus.
3.) Discovered sunspots, and craters on the moon.
4.) Disproved geocentric theory when he discovered that Jupiter had moons revolving around it, showing that not everything in the universe revolves around the Earth.
The results of Galileo's 'Dialogue'
He supported Copernicanism in this book, after the Catholic Church told him to condemn it; therefore, he was placed under house arrest for the remainder of his life.
Newton's Principia and Heliocentric Theory
His law of gravitation proved that motion is in both the celestial and terrestrial worlds. Principia spelled out the mathematical proofs demonstrating this new law of gravitation.
Newton's World Machine
Suggested a rational order to the universe. It was "concieved as operating absolutely in time, space, and motion." And God is "everywhere present" and acted as the force that movies all bodies.