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Uncle Tom's Cabin

an anti-slavery novel by American author Harriet Beecher Stowe. Published in 1852, the novel "helped lay the groundwork for the Civil War" It is credited with helping fuel the abolitionist cause in the 1850s The sentimental novel depicts the reality of slavery while also asserting that Christian love can overcome something as destructive as enslavement of fellow human beings. The impact attributed to the book is great, reinforced by a story that when Abraham Lincoln met Stowe at the start of the Civil War, Lincoln declared, "So this is the little lady who started this Great War."

The Impending Crisis of The South

book written by Hinton Rowan Helper, which he self-published in 1857. It was a strong attack on slavery as inefficient and a barrier to the economic advancement of whites. The book was widely distributed by Horace Greeley and other antislavery leaders, much to the vehement anger of the white Southern leaders.

Bleeding Kansas

series of violent events involving anti-slavery Free states and pro slavery "border ruffian" elements took place in Kansas Territory. Between 1854 and 1858. Bleeding Kansas was a proxy war between north and south over slavery and during entire occurrence question as reappearing would Kansas become a free or slave state?

Beecher's Bibles

the rifles that Henry Beecher bought with his money for those willing to oppose slavery in Kansas and Nebraska

Border Ruffians

Those who desired Kansas to become a free state when entered into the Union

Pro-Slavers sack Lawrence (1856)

helped ratchet up the guerrilla war in Kansas Territory that became known as Bleeding Kansas.

Pottawatomie Creek Massacre

May 1856. In reaction to the sacking of Lawrence by pro-slavers John Brown led a band of abolitionist settlers and killed five settlers of Pottawatomie creek. This was one of the many bloody episodes in Kansas preceding the American Civil War, which came to be known collectively as Bleeding Kansas. Bleeding Kansas was due to the Missouri Compromise and Kansas-Nebraska Act.

John Brown

radical abolitionist from US who advocated and practiced armed insurrection as a mean to abolishing slavery for good. He led the Pottawatomie creek massacre in 1856. Was trialed to death and was hung. He also made a name of himself for the unsuccessful invasion at Harpers Ferry Virginia.

Lecompton Constitution

the second of four composed constitutions for the state of Kansas. The document was written in response to the anti-slavery position of the 1855 Topeka Constitution of James H. Lane and other free-state advocates.

Election of 1856

James Buchanan- democrat Millard Fillmore-know nothing and John C Fremont- republican. Buchanan won presidential election endorsed popular sovereignty.

Representative Brooks assaults Sumner

1856 Brooks upset about Sumner's speech who talked bad on his disabled cousin assaulted him on the senate floor with his cane. Beat him until his cane broke and took senator Sumner 3 years to fully recover. Was found unconscious and Brooks was in jail.

The Dred Scott decision

(1857) Supreme Court case involving a slave who was taken by his master from Missouri a slave state to Illinois a free state. Scott sued for freedom for himself and his family stating that by residing in a free state he had ended his slavery. Buchanan meant for the case's decision to serve as the basis for the slavery issue. Judge Taney ruled that Scott did not have the right to citizenship, which we would need to be able to bring forth a suit. Ruled further that Missouri compromise was unconstitutional because congress had no power to prohibit slavery in the territories as slaves were proper. The decision would apply to all African Americans who were regarded without rights.

Panic of 1857

financial panic in the United States caused from the declining international economy and overexpansion of the domestic economy. With the failure of the Ohio life insurance and trust co. in New York and the overspecualtion in railroads and lands the panic fueled sectional tensions as northerners blamed it on the low tariff policies of the southern dominated congress.

Homestead Act

1862. Granted 160 acres of government land to any person who would farm it for at least five years. The government helped to settle the west with this provision. This "free soil" proposal became law when the southern democrats were not part of congress.

Tariff of 1857

Major tax reduction in the US amended the Walker Tariff. Supporters mostly came from south and agriculture states

Abraham Lincoln

1861-1865 sixteenth president of the US. The lincoln0douglas debates won him high national regard and, eventually, the republican nomination for president. Produced and led a northern army to defend the union against the secessionists. Against spread of slavery.

Lincoln Douglas Debates

1858 came out of the Illinois senatorial campaign between Stephen Douglas and Abraham Lincoln. Slavery was a major issue in the debates. Douglass maintained that popular sovereignty was supported by basic elements of democracy. Lincoln had a moral opposition to slavery's spread and demanded constitutional protection here it existed. Lincoln lost the senate election to Douglas but he stepped into the national time light.

John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry

1859 was an attempt to start an armed slave revolt by seizing a United States Arsenal at Harpers Ferry in Virginia in 1859. Brown's raid was defeated by a detachment of U.S. Marines led by Col. Robert E. Lee. He originally asked Harriet Tubman and Frederick Douglass to join him when he attacked the armory, but illness prevented Tubman from joining him and Douglass believed his plan would fail and did not join him for that reason.

1860 Election

Abraham Lincoln- republican John Breckenridge- southern democrat. Set stage for the civil war. Hardly more than a month following Lincoln's victory came declarations of secession by South Carolina and other states, which were rejected as illegal by outgoing President James Buchanan and President-elect Lincoln.

Creation of the Confederate States of America

unrecognized state set up from 1861 to 1865 by eleven southern slave states of the United States of America that had declared their secession from the U.S. The U.S. government rejected secession as illegal, and after four years of fighting in the American Civil War, the Confederate armies surrendered, its government collapsed, and its slaves were emancipated. The Confederacy's control over its claimed territory shrank steadily during the course of the war, as the Union took control of much of the seacoast and inland waterways.

Crittenden Compromise

was an unsuccessful proposal by Kentucky Senator John J. Crittenden to resolve the U.S. secession crisis of 1860-1861 by addressing the concerns that led the states in the Deep South of the United States to contemplate secession from the United States.

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