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cec/o

cecum

chol/e

gall or bile

col/o

colon

enter/o

small intestine

esophag/o

esophagus

gastr/o

stomach

hepat/o

liver

cholecyst/o

gallbladder

-lithiasis

the formation of stones in an internal organ

pancreat/o

pancreas

-pepsia

digestion

proct/o

rectum, anus

rect/o

rectum

sigmoid/o

sigmoid colon

achlorhydria

A condition in which hydrochloric acid is absent in the stomach.

aerophagia

the excessive swallowing of air while eating or drinking, and is a common cause of gas in the stomach

amebic dysentery

frequent, watery stools often with blood and mucus accompanied by pain, fever, and dehydration

anastomosis

Surgical joining of two ducts, vessels, or bowel segments to allow flow from one to another

anoplasty

surgical repair of the anus

anorexia

eating disorder brought about by an extreme pursuit of thinness characterized by self-starvation and excessive weight loss

anoscopy

visual examination of the anus

aphthous ulcers

grey-white pits with a red border in the soft tissues lining the mouth; also known as canker sores or mouth ulcers

bilirubin

an orange-yellow pigment in the bile that forms as a product of hemoglobin

borborygmus

the rumbling noise caused by the movement of gas in the intestine.

botulism

food poisoning characterized by paralysis and often death; caused by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum

bruxism

grinding of the teeth

bulimia

repeated binge eating, usually followed by vomiting

cholecystalgia

pain in the gall bladder

cholecystectomy

surgical removal of the gallbladder

cholecystitis

inflammation of the gall bladder

choledocholithotomy

incision into the common bile duct to remove a stone

cholelithiasis

the presence of gallstones in the gallbladder

cholera

an acute intestinal infection caused by ingestion of contaminated water or food

cirrhosis

chronic degenerative disease of the liver

colitis

inflammation of the colon

colonoscopy

visual examination of the colon

colostomy

a surgical operation that creates an opening from the colon to the surface of the body to function as an anus

diverticulectomy

the surgical removal of a diverticulum

diverticulitis

inflammation of a diverticulum in the digestive tract (especially the colon)

duodenal ulcers

Ulcers of the small intestine caused by an excessive secretion of hydrochloric acid and Helicobacter pylori infection.

dyspepsia

a disorder of digestive function characterized by discomfort or heartburn or nausea

dysphagia

difficulty in swallowing

emesis

vomiting

emetic

a medicine that induces nausea and vomiting

enteritis

inflammation of the intestine (especially the small intestine)

eructation

gas expelled from the stomach through the mouth

esophageal reflux

A condition in which stomach contents move backward into the esophagus, i.e., heartburn.

esophagoplasty

surgical repair of the esophagus

gastroduodenostomy

removal of part of the stomach and creation of a new opening between the stomach and the duodenum

gastroenteritis

inflammation of stomach and small intestine

gastrorrhagia

bleeding from the stomach

gastrorrhea

excessive secretion of gastric juice or mucus in the stomach

gastrorrhexis

A tear or bursting of the stomach.

gastrostomy

creation of an artificial opening into the stomach

gingivectomy

surgical removal of gum tissue

hematemesis

vomiting blood

hemoccult

test to detect blood in feces

hemorrhoidectomy

surgical procedure for tying hemorrhoids and excising them

hepatitis

inflammation of the liver caused by a virus or a toxin

hepatomegaly

abnormal enlargement of the liver

hepatorrhapy

suturing of liver

hepatorrhexis

rupture of the liver

hepatotomy

surgical incision into the liver

herpes labialis

blister-like sores on the lips and adjacent facial tissue; also known as cold sores or fever blisters

hiatal hernia

hernia resulting from the protrusion of part of the stomach through the diaphragm

hyperemesis

severe and excessive vomiting

ileectomy

the surgical removal of the ileum

ileitis

inflammation of the lower portion of the small intestine

ileocecal

valve between the small intestine and large intestine

ileostomy

creation of a new opening through the abdominal wall into the ileum

ileus

obstruction of the intestine, often caused by failure of peristalsis

inguinal hernia

protrusion of a loop of the intestine through layers of the abdominal wall in the inguinal region

intussusception

telescoping of a segment of the intestine

jaundice

yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes caused by an accumulation of bile pigment (bilirubin) in the blood

maxillofacial

pertaining to the maxilla and the face

melena

abnormally dark tarry feces containing blood (usually from gastrointestinal bleeding)

nasogastric intubation

insertion of a tube through the nose into the stomach

orthodontist

a dentist specializing in the prevention or correction of irregularities of the teeth

periodontitis

a disease that attacks the gum and bone and around the teeth

peristalsis

the process of wave-like muscle contractions of the alimentary tract that moves food along

pica

compulsive eating of nonnutritive substances such as clay or ice

proctoplasty

surgical repair of the rectum

pyrosis

heartburn

regurgitation

the reflex act of ejecting the contents of the stomach through the mouth

salmonella

enteric bacteria, causes typhoid fever and gastroenteritis, most common food born illness

sigmoidoscopy

visual examination of the lower third of the colon in a search for polyps

volvulus

twisting of the bowel on itself, causing obstruction

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