BLOOD PRESSURE & PULSE DETERMINATIONS (Ex. 33)

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SYSTOLE

Ventricular Contraction

DIASTOLE

Ventricular Relaxation

CARDIAC CYCLE

One complete heartbeat

DICROTIC NOTCH

Pressure fluctuation in the Aorta due to the closing of the Aortic Semilunar valve...kind of like pressure you feel when you close a door quickly and no windows are open...

S1 (Lub) (What is making this sound?)

Closing of AV valves: Tricuspid and Bicuspid (Mitral)

S2 (Dub) (What is making this sound?)

Closing of Semilunar valves: Pulmonary & Aortic

HEART MURMURS

Abnormal heartbeat patterns

AUSCULTATION OF AV & SEMILUNAR VALVES

Where doctors listen to your heart

PULSE

Surges of pressure of Left Ventricular contraction

PULSE PRESSURE

Difference between Systole & Diastole

PULSE RATE

Heartbeats per minute

SUPERFICIAL PULSE POINTS

ARTERIES:
- Superificial Temporal
- Facial
- Common Carotid
- Brachial
- Radial
- Femoral
- Popliteal
- Posterior Tibial
- Dorsalis Pedis

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN APICAL & RADIAL PULSE

Apical (Near the heart) is slightly faster than the Radial pulse due to distance from the heart.

Pulse Deficit: Greater lag in time due to:
1. Cardiac impairment
2. Low cardiac output
3. Abnormal heart rhythms

BLOOD PRESSURE

Pressure in the arteries (mm/HG) millimeters of mercury

SYSTOLIC PRESSURE

Measurement of pressure of Ventricular contraction

DIASTOLIC PRESSURE

Measure of pressure: Ventricular relaxation

SPHYGMANOMETER

BP Cuff

SOUNDS OF KOROTKOFF

Sounds of resumption of blood flow in forearm

MEAN ARTERIAL PRESSURE (MAP)

DP (Diastolic Pressure)

+

(PP (Pulse pressure)/3)

BP= CO x PR

Arterial BP = Cardiac Output x Peripheral Resistance

Peripheral Resistance:
1. Increase of Blood vessel constriction
2. Increase of Blood viscosity
3. Decrease of Arterial Elasticity

HARVARD STEP TEST

Measure of BP & pulse changes after step exercise

INDEX OF PHYSICAL FITNESS

Duration of exercise (seconds) x 100/ 2 + sum of 3 pulse counts in recovery (one minute each)

COLD PRESSOR TEST

BP change due to cold pain

HYPOREACTORS

Rise of Systolic/Diastolic from 0-22 mm/HG

HYPERREACTORS

Rise of Systolic/Diastolic 23 mm/HG and above

VASODILATION AND FLUSHING OF SKIN DUE TO LOCAL METABOLITES

Color and size of veins

EFFECTS OF VENOUS CONGESTION

Color and size of veins

COLLATERAL BLOOD FLOW

Like Circle of Willis, other source (routes) of blood flow

EFFECT OF MECHANICAL STIMULATION OF BLOOD VESSELS OF THE SKIN

Stimulate increase of blood flow into area & leaking of capillary fluid

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