a one way system of vessel that carries intercelluar fluid and proteins from intercelluar spaces to the blood
where does the lymphatic system dump intercelluar fluid?
it dumps into the subclavian veins and then into the vena cava.
what are the four functions of the lymphatic system?
1. it absorbs excess tissue fluid and returns it to the bloodstreams.
2.in the small intenstine, lymphatic cappilaries absorb the building blocks of fat-glycerol and fatty acids.
3.it produces, maintains,and distribute lymphocytes(b and t cells)
4. it helps defend against pathogens
what is intercelluar fluid?
a clear watery fluid that helps transport matireals betwween the cappilaries and the cells
what do lymph nodes do?
they filter out bacteria, cancer cells, and other pathogens from entering the blood stream.
what are swollen glands?
the inflammation of lymph nodes. a pathogen is being collected,and so the immune system is working.
what are the lymphatic organs?
red bone marrow,thymus gland, lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils, peyers patches
what is the function of red bone marrow?
they contain stem cells that can differentiate into T cells and B cells
what is the function of the spleen?
destroys red blood cells and contains lymphocytes that help clean the bood of foriegn pathogens
what is the function of peyers patches?
lymphatic tissue found in the intestines that helps rid the body of pathogens that we ingest
what are some examples of barriers to entry?
skin and mucuous linings,oil gland secretions, acidic pH, and good bacteria
what are the steps of the imflammation process?
1. the process gets inflammed, red, and warm.
2. the injured tissue and white blood cells release histamine and kinin. these chemicals cause the blood vessels to dialate and turn red. the blood will rush through the blood vessel and will cause swelling.
3. the swollen area and kinin both stimulate free nerve endings-causes pain
4.neutrophils and monmocytes go to the site of injury and squeeze through the cappilary wall. the pathogens are englufed by the neutrophils and monocytes by phagocytosis. then the pathogen is destroyed by hydrolytic enzymes.
5.monocytes will change into macrophages, cells that engulf large quantities of pathogens.
6. pus forms
7.when the pus is drained out or absorbed by the body the pathogen is hopeuflly gone
8. blood clots will seal off the cappilary
what is pus?
dead neutrophils,dead tissue cells, dead pathogens, and living WBC's. pus indicates the body is trying to overcome the infection.
what do natural killer cells do?
they kill infected cells and tumor cells by cell to cell contact. they have no memoory and no specificity.