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Nye Committe

investigated reasons why US joining wwone. economically driven

Neutrality Act of 1939

(FDR) European democracies might buy American war materials on a "cash-and-carry basis"; improved American moral and economic position

Lend-Lease Act

On 11th March 1941, Congress passed the Lend-Lease Act. The legislation gave President Franklin D. Roosevelt the powers to sell, transfer, exchange, lend equipment to any country to help it defend itself against the Axis powers.

A sum of $50 billion was appropriated by Congress for Lend-Lease. The money went to 38 different countries with Britain receiving over $31 billion. Over the next few years the British government repaid $650 million of this sum.

Atlantic Charter

1941-Pledge signed by US president FDR and British prime minister Winston Churchill not to acquire new territory as a result of WWII amd to work for peace after the war

Burke-Wadsworth Act

created the first peace-time draft in United States history. Both the Congress and the president were concerned with the military expansion of Germany, Japan, and Italy. By implementing a draft, the United States government would be better prepared if the nation became involved in the military conflicts raging in other parts of the world.

America First Committee

A committee organized by isolationists before WWII, who wished to spare American lives. They wanted to protect America before we went to war in another country. Charles A. Lindbergh (the aviator) was its most effective speaker.

Casablanca Conference

Jan. 14-23, 1943 - FDR and Chruchill met in Morocco to settle the future strategy of the Allies following the success of the North African campaign. They decided to launch an attack on Italy through Sicily before initiating an invasion into France over the English Channel. Also announced that the Allies would accept nothing less than Germany's unconditional surrender to end the war.

Dec 7, 1941

Japan attacks Pearl Harbor

Dwight Eisenhower

United States general who supervised the invasion of Normandy and the defeat of Nazi Germany

Douglas Macarthur

(1880-1964), U.S. general. Commander of U.S. (later Allied) forces in the southwestern Pacific during World War II, he accepted Japan's surrender in 1945 and administered the ensuing Allied occupation. He was in charge of UN forces in Korea 1950-51, before being forced to relinquish command by President Truman.

Executive Order #9066

2/19/42; 112,000 Japanese-Americans forced into camps causing loss of homes & businesses, 600K more renounced citizenship; demonstrated fear of Japanese invasion

Europe First

Military strategy adopted by the United States that required concentrating on the defeat of Germany while maintaining a holding action against Japan in the Pacific.

Operation Overlord

the code name for the Allied invasion of Europe at Normandy on June 6, 1944; also known as D-Day

Big Three

allies during WWII; Soviet Union - Stalin, United Kingdom - Churchill, United States - Roosevelt

Joseph Stalin

Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)

Winston Churchill

A noted British statesman who led Britain throughout most of World War II and along with Roosevelt planned many allied campaigns. He predicted an iron curtain that would separate Communist Europe from the rest of the West.

Teheran Conference

December, 1943 - A meeting between FDR, Churchill and Stalin in Iran to discuss coordination of military efforts against Germany, they repeated the pledge made in the earlier Moscow Conference to create the United Nations after the war's conclusion to help ensure international peace.

Yalta Conference

FDR, Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta. Russia agreed to declare war on Japan after the surrender of Germany and in return FDR and Churchill promised the USSR concession in Manchuria and the territories that it had lost in the Russo-Japanese War

Potsdam Conference

The final wartime meeting of the leaders of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union was held at Potsdamn, outside Berlin, in July, 1945. Truman, Churchill, and Stalin discussed the future of Europe but their failure to reach meaningful agreements soon led to the onset of the Cold War.

Manhatten Project

Secret American program during World War II to develop an atomic bomb

J. Robert Oppenheimer

Leader of the atomic bomb project at Los Alamos, NM

Hiroshima

City in Japan, the first to be destroyed by an atomic bomb, on August 6, 1945. The bombing hastened the end of World War II. (p. 797)

Rosie the Riveter

A propaganda character designed to increase production of female workers in the factories. It became a rallying symbol for women to do their part.

War Production Board

During WWII, FDR established it to allocated scarce materials, limited or stopped the production of civilian goods, and distributed contracts among competing manufacturers

Office of Price Administration

Instituted in 1942, this agency was in charge of stabilizing prices and rents and preventing speculation, profiteering, hoarding and price administration. The OPA froze wages and prices and initiated a rationing program for items such as gas, oil, butter, meat, sugar, coffee and shoes in order to support the war effort and prevent inflation.

Office of War Information

Organization that employed artists, writers and advertisers to shape public opinion concerning World War II. A big propaganda machine.

War Labor Board

(WLB) settled disputes between business and labor without strikes so that production would not be interrupted and morale would be high

Fair Employment Practices Commission

FDR issued this committee in 1941 to enforce the policy of prohibiting employment-related discrimination practices by federal agencies, unions, and companies involved in war-related work It guaranteed the employment of 2 million black workers in the war factories.

Smith-Connally War Labor Disputes Act

was an American law passed on June 25, 1943, over President Franklin D. Roosevelt's veto. The legislation was hurriedly created after 400,000 coal miners, their wages significantly lowered due to high wartime inflation, struck for a $2-a-day wage increase.

The Act allowed the federal government to seize and operate industries threatened by or under strikes that would interfere with war production,[5] and prohibited unions from making contributions in federal elections

victory garden

A home vegetable garden created to boost food production during World War II

Wendell Wilkie

Popular choice for Repub nominee in election of 1940. Critized New Deal, but largely agreed with Roosevelt on preparedness and giving aid to Britain. Lost to Roosevelt.

Thomas Dewey

He was the Governor of New York (1943-1955) and the unsuccessful Republican candidate for the U.S. Presidency in 1944 and 1948. As a leader of the liberal faction of the Republican party he fought the conservative faction led by Senator Robert A. Taft, and played a major role in nominating Dwight D. Eisenhower for the presidency in 1952.

Harry S. Truman

elected Vice President in Roosevelt's 4th term, Became president when FDR died; gave the order to drop the atomic bomb

G.I. Bill

Provided for college or vocational training for returning WWII veterens as well as one year of unemployment compensation. Also provided for loans for returning veterens to buy homes and start businesses.

San Francisco Conference

1945 - This conference expanded the drafts of the Yalta and Dumbarton Oaks conferences and adopted the "United Nations" Charter.

United Nations

International organization founded in 1945 to promote world peace and cooperation. It replaced the League of Nations.

UN general assembly

The UN parliament, symbolically important but weak because their resolutions are non-binding

UN Security Council

11 Members of States, 5 Permenant & 6 elected, each member had the power to veto, the USSR was absent in 1950 when the Korean War broke out.

deterrence

the act or process of discouraging actions or preventing occurrences by instilling fear or doubt or anxiety

containment

a policy of creating strategic alliances in order to check the expansion of a hostile power or ideology or to force it to negotiate pecefully

Cold War

A conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted eachother on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years.

Iron Curtain

an impenetrable barrier to communication or information especially as imposed by rigid censorship and secrecy

Truman Doctrine

First established in 1947 after Britain no longer could afford to provide anti-communist aid to Greece and Turkey, it pledged to provide U.S. military and economic aid to any nation threatened by communism.

Marshall Plan

Introduced by Secretary of State George G. Marshall in 1947, he proposed massive and systematic American economic aid to Europe to revitalize the European economies after WWII and help prevent the spread of Communism.

Berlin airlift

Successful effort by the United States and Britain to ship by air 2.3 million tons of supplies to the residents of the Western-controlled sectors of Berlin from June 1948 to May 1949, in response to a Soviet blockade of all land and canal routes to the divided city.

North Atlantic Treaty Organization

In 1949, the United States, Canada, and ten European nations formed this military mutual-defense pact. In 1955, the Soviet Union countered NATO with the formation of the Warsaw Pact, a military alliance among those nations within its own sphere of influence.

Warsaw Pact

treaty signed in 1945 that formed an alliance of the Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain; USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania

Rio Pact

-United states and Latin American countries signed this in 1947, -If we you are attacked U.S will help you, if we are attacked, you will help us. - Cuba withdrew from it in 1960

38th parallel

latitudinal line that divided North and South Korea at approximatly the midpoint of the peninsula

"police action"

phrase used to describe the U.S. intervention in Korea in 1950; the United States never officially declared war

right-to-work laws

"right to work laws"
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Taft-Hartley Act

"taft-hartley act"
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Dixiecrat Party

one of the factions that branched off of the Democratic party before the election of 1948; consisted of Southern Democrats who were angry at the civil rights legislation Truman had proposed and/or succeeded in passing

Fair Deal

An economic extension of the New Deal proposed by Harry Truman that called for higher minimum wage, housing and full employment. It led only to the Housing Act of 1949 and the Social Security Act of 1950 due to opposition in congress.

Chiang Kai-shek

nationalist. Strong (early). 1937: Japan attacks China and Mao and Chiang get back together to fight Japan. U.S. gives Chiang money and army support, he does not use it for army or war while Mao and peasants battle Japan. 1945: Civil War to become leader. 1949: Chiang runs away to Taiwan, takes his people and Chinas former government.

hydrogen bomb

One thousand more times more powerful than the atomic bomb. Truman ordered the development of it to outpace the Soviets.

Edward Teller

Unlike the Oppenheimer, this man argued for a fusion bomb in which explosive power was created by forcing hydrogen atoms together.

House Un-American Activities Committee

an investigative committee of the United States House of Representatives. In 1969, the House changed the committee's name to "House Committee on Internal Security".When the House abolished the committee in 1975, its functions were transferred to the House Judiciary Committee

Hollywood Ten

Group of people in the film industry who were jailed for refusing to answer congressional questions regarding Communist influence in Hollywood

Alger Hiss

A former State Department official who was accused of being a Communist spy and was convicted of perjury. The case was prosecuted by Richard Nixon.

Richard Nixon

he was elected to be US President after Johnson decided to not to run for US president again. He promised peace with honor in Vietnam which means withdrawing American soliders from South Vietnam

McCarran Internal Security Act

United States federal law that required the registration of Communist organizations with the Attorney General in the United States and established the Subversive Activities Control Board to investigate persons thought to be engaged in "un-American" activities, including homosexuals

Smith Act

Required fingerprinting and registering of all aliens in the U.S. and made it a crime to teach or advocate the violent overthrow of the U.S. government.

Ethel and Julius Rosenberg

were American communists who were executed after having been found guilty of conspiracy to commit espionage. The charges were in relation to the passing of information about the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union. Theirs was the first execution of civilians for espionage in United States history

Joseph McCarthy

1950s; Wisconsin senator claimed to have list of communists in American gov't, but no credible evidence; took advantage of fears of communism post WWII to become incredibly influential; "McCarthyism" was the fearful accusation of any dissenters of being communists

baby boom

An increase in population by almost 30 million people. This spurred a growth in suburbs and three to four children families.

Jackie Robinson

The first African American player in the major league of baseball. His actions helped to bring about other opportunities for African Americans.

22nd Amendment

Passed in 1951, the amendment that limits presidents to two terms of office.

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