8th Grade CT Science CMT Review

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axis

an imaginary line that passes through Earth's center and its North and South Poles- Week 1 begins

balance

an instrument used to measure mass

boiling point

the temperature at which a substance changes from a liquid to a gas

camouflage

structural adaptation that enables species to blend with their surroundings; allows a species to avoid detection by predators

categorize

To arrange in classes; put with things with same or similar qualities; to classify

climate

the average weather conditions in an area over a long period of time

conduct

to organize and perform an experiment

controlled experiement

an experiment in which all variables except one are kept constant

dependent variable

The experimental factor that is being measured; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable

erosion

The process by which wind, water, ice, or gravity transports soil and sediment from one location to another- Week 1 ends

ecosystem

living and nonliving things in an environment, together with their interactions- Week 2 begins

evaporate

to change from a liquid to a gas

function

the special, normal, or proper activity of an organ or part

trials

the number of times an experiment is repeated; more are necessary to prove experiements!

gravity

a force of attraction between objects that is due to their masses; larger objects have more gravitational pull; ex. sun vs. Earth

meiosis

process by which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the separation of chromosomes in a diploid cell

joules

Unit of Energy

milliliter

a metric unit of volume equal to one thousandth of a liter

mixture

a substance consisting of two or more substances mixed together (not in fixed proportions and not with chemical bonding)

nonmetal

element that is a poor conductor of heat and electricity and lacks the qualities of a metal.

speed

the ratio of the distance an object moves to the amount of time the object moves; D/T- week 3 begins

meter

the basic unit of length adopted under the Systeme International d'Unites

newtons

The unit of measurement for force

nutrients

substances in food that your body needs to grow, to repair itself, and to supply you with energy

volume

the amount of 3-dimensional space occupied by an object

variable

a factor that changes in an experiment in order to test a hypothesis

mitosis

the stage of the cell cycle during which the cell's nucleus divides into two new nuclei and one copy of the DNA is distributed into each daughter cell

synthesize

To combine so as to form a new, complex product or idea

states of matter

The physical forms of matter, which include solid, liquid, and gas

rotation

spinning of Earth on its imaginary axis, which takes about 24 hours to complete and causes day and night to occur

control

a standard against which other conditions can be compared in a scientific experiment; the comparison group

precipitation

water that falls to Earth as rain, snow, hail, or sleet- week 4 begins

offspring

a new organism produced by a living thing-Week 4 begins

oxygen

a gas that animals need to use in respiration and that plants give off into the air during photosynthesis; element symbol: O

gamete

haploid reproductive cells; ex. sperm or egg

photosynthesis

process by which plants use the sun's energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars

Zygote

fertilized egg; first cell after sperm fertilizes an egg.

range

the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution

Record Data

the results and your observations from the experiment are recorded. use tables, graphs or charts to show your results.

reliable

can be trusted or depended on

reproduce

have offspring or young

revolution

Earth's yearlong elliptical orbit around the sun

water cycle

the continuous movement of water between Earth's surface and the air, changing from liquid to gas to liquid

weathering

the process by which rock materials are broken down by the action of physical or chemical processes

weight

the vertical force exerted by a mass as a result of gravity-Start Week 5

work

a manifestation of energy; Ex. the transfer of energy from one physical system to another expressed as the product of a force and the distance through which it moves a body in the direction of that force; equals force times distance"-

orbit

the (usually elliptical) path described by one celestial body in its revolution about another

atmosphere

a mixture of gases that surrounds a planet or moon

resources

the energy and materials found in a habitat

pressure

the amount of force exerted per unit area of a surface

scale

pattern, make, regulate, set, measure, or estimate according to some rate or standard

solvent

in a solution, the substance in which the solute dissolves

soluble

(of a substance) capable of being dissolved in some solvent (usually water)

survive

to remain alive, to continue living or existing

kilogram

one thousand grams (SI unit of mass)

differentiate

to make or become different; to tell the difference between; to note differences

temperature

A measure of the average energy of motion of the particles of a substance- start week 6

tension

Stress that occurs when forces act to stretch an object

theory

well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations

gram

basic unit of mass

valid

founded on fact or evidence

motion

an object's change in position relative to a reference point

molecule

group of atoms held together by covalent bonds

abiotic

nonliving, physical features of the environment, including air, water, sunlight, soil, temperature, and climate

biotic

the living organisms in an ecosystem

decomposers

organisms that break down wastes and dead organisms and return raw materials to the environment- start week 7

producers

organisms that make their own food; autotrophs

consumers

Organisms that eat living producers and/or other consumers for food; heterotrophs

eclipses

when the moon's shadow hits earth (solar-New moon phase) or earth's shadow hits the moon (lunar-Full moon phase)

extinct

no longer in existence; no longer active; gone out of use

experimental design

A design in which researchers manipulate an independent variable and measure a dependent variable to determine a cause-and-effect relationship

respiratory system

system responsible for taking in oxygen and releasing carbon dioxide using the lungs

organism

a living thing that has (or can develop) the ability to act or function independently

structure

the arrangement of parts in an organism

testable question

Question that can be answered with data from an experiment

season

short period of climate change in an area caused by the tilt of Earth's axis as Earth revolves around the sun

element

any of the more than 100 known substances (of which 92 occur naturally) that cannot be separated into simpler substances and that singly or in combination constitute all matter

dissolve

To mix completely with another substance to form a solution

digestive system

body system the breaks down food and absorbs nutrients

circulatory system

The human body system that contains the heart, blood, and all of the blood vessels. It delivers all the nutrients to the cells

egg

Female germ cell containing 1/2 of somatic cell chromosomes- all eggs are X chromosome

sperm

Male germ cell containing 1/2 of somatic cell chromosomes- 50% of sperm are Y & 50% X chromosome -end week 7

credibility

the quality of being believable or trustworthy- Start week 8

procedure

a set sequence of steps to complete an experiment

surface water

water contained in places such as lakes, ponds, rivers, streams, and reservoirs and above the ground

compound

substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions

Celsius

Metric unit for measuring temperature; On this scale water freezes at zero and boils at 100.

kinetic energy

the energy an object has due to its motion

ground water

water that seeps downward into and through soil or rock; water stored underground in rock layers

irradiation

Ionizing radiation applied to food to kill microorganisms and other pests. Ionizing radiation disrupts the internal molecular workings of cells, killing them.

folded rock

When rocks are deformed plastically,
they are bent into sloping folds

faulted rock

When rocks are deformed (broken) brittly, they are displaced along fractures

valleys

a low area between mountains or hills where streams and rivers often flow

floodplains

Low lands along riverbanks, lakes, and coastlines subjected to periodic indunation of water- end week 8

line graphs

display changes in quantities over time or distance.- start week 9

bar graphs

useful when comparing categorical (word) data by groups

dehydration

dryness resulting from the removal of water

solution

a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances that involves dissolving; it can still be separated

musculo-skeletal system

The way your muscles and bones work together with the help of your nerves, and use the energy provided by cellular respiration within your cells to produce movement.

Potential energy

stored energy that is latent but available for use. A rock poised at the top of a hill or water stored behind a dam are examples.

Fahrenheit

A temperature scale with the freezing point of water 32 degrees and the boiling point of 212 degrees is also known as,

energy transformation

When energy changes from one form to another. E can never be created or destroyed. Law of Conservation

pickling

is when acids like vinegar are used to preserve some food

chromosomes

threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes; humans have 46 chromosomes in 23 pairs

density

mass divided by volume; the amount of matter in a given space

septic & sewage systems

designed to clean human waste water and eventually drain into ground and surface water

mitochondria

Powerhouse of the cell, organelle that is the site of ATP (energy) production through cellular respiration

cytoplasm

a jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended

cell membrane

thin, flexible barrier around a cell; regulates what enters and leaves the cell- end week 9

nucleus

The organelle that contains the DNA and controls the processes of the cell- start week 10

ovary

female reproductive organ that produces egg cells and hormones

testes

male reproductive glands, which produce sperm and testosterone

condensation

the process by which a gas changes to a liquid as it cools

mechanical advantage

the ratio of the force exerted by a machine (output) to the force applied to it (input)

tectonic plates

individual sections of the lithosphere of the earth. They fit together in a way similar to a jigsaw puzzle, but are always moving very slowly, floating on the molten rock of the lower mantle.

circular motion

motion in a circle caused by a resultant force acting towards the center of the circle; ex sun's gravity pulls Earth's orbit out of a straight path.

Long Island Sound

a body of water (sound) between Long Island and Connecticut; all watersheds in CT reach LI sound

compression forces

forces that push toward each other

tension forces

are forces that pull apart, can stretch earths crust

load

forces that act upon a structure, machine, or bridge

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