APUSH Ch. 21 Review
|Battle of Bull Run||July 21, 1861. Va. (outside of D.C.) People watched battle. Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson: Confederate general, held his ground and stood in battle like a "stone wall." Union retreated. Confederate victory. Showed that both sides needed training and war would be long and bloody|
|Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson||Confederate general whose men stopped Union assault during the Battle of Bull Run|
|George McClellan||a master organizer and planner who was put in charge of getting the U.S. Army ready|
|Richmond, Virginia||McClellan planned to caputre this Southern City (which was the capital of the South)|
|Peninsula Campaign||Botched Union attempt to capture the capital Richmond by circumventing the Confederate army by sea, McClellan responsible for Union failure, also Seven Days Battle|
|Jeb Stuart||in charge of Confederate cavalry; Lee upset with him because he arrives late and without the right things; involved in Gettysburg|
|Robert E. Lee||Confederate general who had opposed secession but did not believe the Union should be held together by force|
|Seven Days' Battles||Confederate victory in Virginia, during which Lee stopped Union campaign against Richmond and drove the union back toward the sea; was a counterattack to McClellan's Peninsula Campaign|
|Winfield Scott||• Was a United States Army general, diplomat, and presidential candidate|
• Known as "Old Fuss and Feathers" and the "Grand Old Man of the Army", he served on active duty as a general longer than any other man in American history
• In American Civil War, he developed the Union strategy known as the Anaconda Plan that would be used to defeat the Confederacy
|Anaconda Plan||Plan developed by WInfield Scott that was used to defeat the Confederacy; contained of the following objectives:|
1. Put a naval blockade the South.
2. Free the slaves.
3. Divide the South along the Mississippi River.
4. Divide and crush the South by marching through Georgia and the Carolinas.
5. Capture the Southern capital of Richmond.
6. Engage the enemy anywhere possible and grind them into submission.
|"Running the blockade"||sneaking goods through a blockade to make a profit|
|ironclad||a ship heavily armored with iron and thus greatly protected from cannon fire|
|Second Battle of Bull Run||Culmination of offensive campaign by Robert E. Lee, overwhelming victory|
|Battle of Antietam Creek||The Southern invasion of the North began on September 17, 1862, led and planned by Robert E. Lee; ended as a statistical draw and the single bloodiest day of the war (22,000 men died in one day) and it was one of the largest battles of the war|
|Results of Antietam Creek|| • Europe decided to stay out of the war|
• Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation
|A.E. Burnside||was put in charge of the Northern army following Antietam; replaced McClellan|
|Joseph Hooker||General who took over for Burnside; he was also defeated at Chancellorsville by Robert E. Lee (1814-1879)|
|George Meade||Union General who replaced Hooker and defeated Lee at Gettysburg|
|Chancellorsville, Virginia||Battle where Robert E. lee defeated Union army and where Jackson was shot by a fellow confederate and died.|
|Battle of Gettysburg||Turning point of the War that made it clear the North would win. 50,000 people died, and the South lost its chance to invade the North.|
|Pickett's Charge||3rd day of Gettysburg, Lee asked his general to lead troops on a mile and a half run where they were then slaughtered by the union army|
|Gettysburg Address||a 2-minute address by Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War (November 19, 1963) at the dedication of a national cemetery on the site of the Battle of Gettysburg|
|Ulysses S. Grant||Union military commander who won victories when others had failed and defeated Lee|
|Vicksburg||U.S. Grant had his troops circle around the city, he then took the capital of Jackson, MS, and then seized this city; became a decisive battle in the American Civil War (1863)|
|William Tecumseh Sherman||put in charge of dividing the South by land; led the "March to the Sea" and scorched Georgia from Atlanta to Savannah on the coast; he also captured Atlanta in 1864|
|Radical Republicans||Political party that favored harsh punishment of Southern states after civil war|
|War Democrats||supported Lincoln and the war|
|Peace Democrats||opposed Lincoln (calling him the "Illinois Ape") and the "N***** War" that he led|
|Clement Valandigham||Lincoln's loudest opponent; he leaned toward the South, was tried for treason, shipped down South, fled to Canada, there ran and lost a bid for governor of Ohio, then returned to Ohio|
|Election of 1864||Lincoln vs. McClellan, Lincoln wants to unite North and South, McClellan wants war to end if he's elected, citizens of North are sick of war so many vote for McClellan; end result: Lincoln wins|
|Copperheads||a group of northern Democrats who opposed abolition and sympathized with the South during the Civil War; Lincoln's most vicious opponents|
|Butternut Region||region where Lincoln's critics usually came from; southern Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio; region where an antislavery war was extremely unpopular|
|Union Party|| • invented by Lincoln for Election of 1864|
• included all of the Republicans and the war Democrats
• excluded the copperheads and peace Democrats
• was formed out of fear of the republican party losing control
• was responsible for nominating Lincoln.
|"When in doubt, fight."||Ulysses S. Grant's motto|
|April 1865||Date of General Lee's surrender to General Grant|
|Appomattox Courthouse (Virginia)||the end of the civil war, the Virginia town where Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant in 1865, ending the Civil War|
|John Wilkes Booth||was an American stage actor who, as part of a conspiracy plot, assassinated Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President of the United States, at Ford's Theatre in Washington, D.C. on April 14, 1865 (a few days after South's surrender)|
|September 17, 1862||Date of the Battle of Antietam|
|August 29, 1862||Date of the Second Battle of Bull Run|
|Wendell Phillips||Denounced President Lincoln and called him a "first-rate second-rate man"|
|Burnsides Slaughter Pen||More than 10,000 men were killed or wounded in his rash frontal attack on Lee's strong position at Fredericksburng, Viriginia, on December 13, 1862|
|December 13, 1862||Date of Burnsides Slaughter Pen|
|Tennessee||State where U.S. Grant captured two crucial forts (Hnery and Donelson)|
|David Farragut||Union naval officer who captured New Orleans|
|July 4, 1863||Date of Union victory at Vicksburg|
|Lookout Mountain||Nicknamed "the Battle above the Clouds" in Tennessee|
|Sherman's Sentinels||chimneys were all that was left standing in ravaged south after Sherman burned down the rest|
|Kentucky and Delaware|| Which two states kept slavery until it was finally abolished by the|
Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution?