subunits of DNA. Made of simple sugars, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base.
the process by which DNA in a chromosome is copied.
process by which the nucleic enzymes make an RNA copy of a portion of a DNA strand.
the process of converting the information in a sequence of nitrogenous bases in mRNA into a sequence of amino acids in proteins.
complementary base pairing
the bases adenine and thymine are always paired together and the bases guanine and cytosine are also always paired together.
any chang in a DNA sequence. Can be caused by errors in replication, transcription, cell division, or by external agents.
the double helix is two strands that are twisted together. The nitrogen bases Adenine and Thymine are always paired together, as are the bases Cytosine and Guanine always paired together.
the structural changes in chromosomes.