What is the minimum amount of time required for major depression?
most common presentatin of sickle cell trait?
Painless hematuria. They have concentrations of hemoglobin S of 35-40%
outpouching just above the upper esophageal sphincter causing motility incoordination between esophageal and pharyngeal contractions.
Diagnose with barium swallow
Surgical treatment is excision and often crichopharyngeal myotomy.
What does a benadryl overdose look like?
Anticholinergic excess (opposite of organophosphate) so have to give physostigmine
-organophosphates everything opens up: watery eyes, diarrhea, etc. (including increase in Ach). Give Atropine!
get hyperkinetic bowels from dopamine excess (can give benadryl, benztropine)
Pig farmers at risk for what? Sheep farmers for what?
Pigs - neurocysticercosis
Sheep/dogs - echinococcosis
Effect on QT of beta blocker? Quinidine?
Beta blockers shortens QT, quinidine prolongs it.
Antibiotics for a pregnant UTI?
amoxicillin, nitrofurantoin or cephalosporin (get the NAC for it)
What do you need to add to vanc and ceftriaxone for meningitis in the elderly?
Ampicillin for listeria
Treatment for meningitis in a hospitalized patient?
Ceftaz and vanc (cover pseudomonas)
What do you do with perceived vulvar lichen sclerosis?
Punch biopsy to rule out SCC and then give steroids
When to start home O2 for COPD?
nocturnal hypoxia, PaO2 < 55 or Sat < 88%, evidence of Cor pulmonale
First test for bright red blood per rectum in young otherwise low risk patient?
Anoscopy or proctoscopy
Best drug for acute symptom relief (resp difficulty) in heart failure?
What do you think of with nose bleeds and telangiectasias?
Osler-weber-rendu syndrome (AV malformations, especially pulmonary)
What aspect of hypothroidism leads to joint and neuro changes?
Central retinal artery occlusion vs retinal emboli
same symptoms of unilateral sudden vision loss but central retinal artery occlusion is whitened edematous retina where retinal emboli are cherry red fovea with pallor of the disc
What does leprosy look like on exam?
insensate hypopigented macule and muscle atrophy (acid fast)
Are visual symptoms associated with pseudotumor cerebri or Normo-pressure hydrocephalus?
Pseudotumor cerebri (NPH is associated with urinary incontinece)
a color test to screen for PKU
Electrolyte abnormalities of Cushings?
Increased aldosterone (mineralocorticoid affects of cortisol) causes hypernatremia and hypokalemia
Best initial test for esophageal rupture?
Gastrografin contrast esophagram. Give antibiotics and surgical repair! (gastrografin is water soluble so it does not cause as much mediastinal inflammation as barium)
Language centers are where?
Dominant frontal lobe for brocas
Temporal lobe for wernikes
(motor is largely frontal, sensory is largely parietal)
Previa and abruption vs vasa previa?
vasa previa is cord bleeding so you get sinuidal fetal heart changes and baby is doing poorly
Syncope preceded by nausea, warm feeling, sweating, tachycardia or pallor are caused by what?
Neurocardiogenic syncope causing increased vagal tone