valve located between the left atrium and the left ventricle
valve locate between the right atrium and the right ventricle "my right"
the aortic valve and the pulmonary valve are called the ______________ valves.
inferior vena cava
the vena cava that carries blood back to the heart from body parts below the diaphragm
superior vena cava
the vena cava that carries blood back to the heart from upper body
microscopic blood vessels that connect arterioles and venules. Materials are passed from blood to tissue through their walls.
blood cells that carry oxygen. red.
blood cells that fight infection and respond to inflammation. There are five types. white
thrombocytes are also called ____________. They are responsible for aiding in clotting.
clear watery portion of blood that remains after a clot has formed
liquid portion of blood where cells are suspended. 90% water and compose 55% of blood volume.
neutrophil (most common)
monocyte (mature into macrophages)
basophil (gr. basis + philein -to love)
five types of leukocytes. NEMBL
system that returns excessive tissue to the blood, absorbs fats and fat soluble vitamins from the small intestine and transports them to the blood, and provides protection from infection.
clear fluid in the lymphatic system similiar to blood plasma
this organ is located in the left side of the abdominal cavity between the stomach and the diaphragm. It is the largest lymphatic organ (in adults). Blood is cleansed of microrganisms in this. It stores blood and destroys worn out red blood cells.
gland that plays an important role in the development of the immune system up until puberty
blood clot in the blood stream
blood clot lodged in a vessel
acute coronary syndrome
ACS - umbrella term used when patient seeks emergency care for acute angina or myocardial infarction not yet diagnosed
ballooning of a weakened portion of an arterial wall.
AFib - characterized by rapid electrical impulses in the atria. The atria quiver instead of contract. Two types are chronic(sustained) and paroxysmal (intermittent)
acute compression of the heart caused by fluid accumulation in the pericardial cavity
coarctation of the aorta (Latin "coartare" meaning :to press together)
congenital condition characterized by a narrowing of the aorta. from latin coartare
congestive heart failure
CHF - inability of the heart to pump enough blood to supply the body with oxygen and nutrients
coronary artery disease
CAD - most often caused by coronary atherosclerosis; condition of reduced blood flow through the coronary arteries to the myocardium.
obstruction of an artery of the heart (usually from atherosclerosis) can lead to acute myocardial infarction. CO
deep vein thrombosis
DVT - condition of a thrombus in a deep vein of the body. usually in the lower extremities.
hypertensive heart disease
HHD - disorder of the heart brought about by persistent high blood pressure
intermittent claudication ( Latin "claudicare" meaning to limp.)
pain and discomfort in the calf muscles while walking; a condition seen in occlusive artery disease
mitral valve stenosis
a narrowing of the mitral valve from scarring, usually caused by episodes of rheumatic fever
myocardial infarction ( Latin "infarcire" meaning "to plug up or cram.")
MI - necrosis of a portion of the myocardium caused by lack of oxygen resulting from an interrupted blood supply (heart attack)
peripheral artery disease
PAD - disease of the arteries (other than those of the heart and brain) that affects blood circulation. the most common symptom is intermittent claudication
malignant disorder of the lymphatic tissue characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph node, usually beginning in the cervical nodes.
an acute infection caused by the epstein barr virus characterized by swollen lymh nodes, sore throat, fatigue and fever. usually transmitted by saliva
anemia caused by b12 deficiency
sickle cell anemia. reduced life of red blood cells
aplastic anemia (L. plasticus / gr. plastikos - capable of shaping or molding)
anemia resulting from bone marrow failure
hemophilia (Gr. philein - to love)
inherited bleeding disease
percutaneous coronary intervention
PCI - range of procedures to treat coronary artery disease through skin
atrial fibrillation ablation
a procedure in which abnormal cells that trigger atrial fibrillation are destroyed by using radiofrequency
coronary artery bypass graft
CABG - surgical technique to bring new blood supply to the heart muscle by detouring around blocked arteries. grafts a bypass to go around blocked arteries.
implantable cardiac defibrillator
ICD - implanted in the body and continuously monitors heart rhythm and is capable of delivering an electric shock to convert arrhythmia back to normal
percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
PTCA - uses a balloon to compress plaque in a vessel wall to expand the inner diameter.
through the skin - across/through the lumen -heart - vessel repair
digital subtraction angiography
DSA - digital radiographic imaging that "subtracts" structures not being studied. digital - removed - vessel reading
single-photon emission computed tomography
SPECT - nuclear medicine scan that visualizes the heart from different angles. used to assess damage to cardiac tissue. "computer recorded slices of the single photon emission "
nuclear medicine test used to diagnose coronary artery disease and assess revascularization after coronary bypass surgery. injected thallium is taken up by normal myocardial cells but not in ischemia or infarction (Areas identified as "cold" spots)
impedence plethysmography (plethor-, plethysmo- Greek: fullness; increase ....and ai plethora - excess, superabundance, overly full, )
IPG - used to detect deep vein thrombosis. uses a plethysmograph to detect changes in blood volume and impedence in the vein.
CRP - blood test measures this. when elevated it indicates inflammation in the body
CPK blood test measures the level of this enzyme released by muscle after injury or necrosis. useful in evaluating patients with acute myocardial infarction
troponin (gr. tropos - turning, changing.)
enzyme released into the blood approx. three hours after necrosis of heart muscle and may remain elevated from seven to ten days. a complex of three regulatory proteins that is integral to muscle contraction in skeletal and cardiac muscle, but not smooth muscle. blood test useful in the diagnosis of myocardial infarction.
complete blood count
CBC - lab. basic blood screening
HCT - blood test to measure the amount of red blood cells. used to diagnose anemia
Hgb - blood test used to determine concentration of oxygen carrying components in red blood cells
PT - blood test used to measure coagulation activity and monitor patients on coumadin
space within a tubular part
abnormal or pathologic condition of the blood.
bad - breaking
immunoglobulins are also called_________they are produced by lymphocytes. they inactivate or destroy antigens
substance that triggers an immune response
phagocytosis (Gr. sarkophagos L.sarcophagus - eating or consuming flesh; flesh-eating. so named because the limestone, in which people were buried, caused rapid disintegration or decomposition of the bodies)
process in which some of the white blood cells destroy the invading microrganisms and old cells.