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99m Technetium

Radioisotope used in nuclear medicine (tracer studies)

Abduction

Muscle movement away from the mid-line of the body

Absence seizure

petit mal seizure; minor form of seizure, consisting of momentary clouding of consciousness and loss of contact with the environment

Acetylcholine

neurotransmitter chemical released at the ends of nerve cells

adduction

muscle movement toward the mid-line of the body

analgesia

absence of sensitivity to pain

Anesthesia

lack of feeling or sensation

Angiography

process of recording blood vessels using contrast and x-ray

AP view

anteroposterior; X-rays travel from an anteriorly placed source to a posteriorly placed detector

aphasia

inability to speak; language function is impaired due to injury to the cerebral cortex

apraxia

inability to perform purposeful acts or manipulate objects

arachnoid membrane

middle layer of the meninges that surround the brain and spinal cord

arteriography

x-ray recording of arteries; contrast is injected

arthrogram

record of a joint

arthrography

x-ray imaging of a joint after injection of contrast material

astrocytes

glial cells that transport salts and water from capillaries

ataxia

without coordination

aura

peculiar sensation appearing before more definite symptoms

axon

microscopic fiber that carries a nervous impulse along a nerve cell

barium enema

a lower gastrointestinal series that opacifies the lumen (passageway) of the large intestines using an enema containing barium sulfate

bradykinesia

slow movement

cauda equina

collection of spinal nerves bellow the end of the spinal cord

causalgia

intensely unpleasant burning pain in a limb following damage to nerves

cerebellum

part of the brain that coordinates muscle movements and maintains balance

cerebral angiography

x-ray record of blood vessels in the brain after intravenous injection of contrast material

cerebral cortex

outer region of the cerebrum

cerebral hemorrhage

bursting of an artery in the brain

cerebral palsy

partial paralysis and muscular coordination caused by loss of oxygen or blood flow to the cerebrum during pregnancy or in the perinatal period

cerebrum

largest part of the brain; responsible for voluntary muscular activity, vision, speech, taste, hearing, thought, and memory among other funtions

cholangiography

x-ray recording of bile vessels (ducts) using radiopaque contrast medium

cine-

movement

cineradiography

use of motion picture techniques to record a series of x-ray images

computed tomography

diagnostic x-ray procedure whereby a cross-section image of a specific body segment is produced.

contrast studies

materials (contrast media) are injected to obtain contrast with surrounding tissue when shown on the x-ray

dementia

mental decline and deterioration

dendrite

microscopic branching portion of a nerve cell; first part of nerve cell to receive the nervous impulse

dopamine

neurotransmitter in the central nervous system; deficient in patients with Parkinson Disease

dura mater

thick outermost layer of the meninges surrounding the brain and spinal cord

dyslexia

difficulty in reading writing and learning

dysphasia

difficulty in speaking or with speech

echocardiography

high energy sound waves are transmitted into the chest and images are recorded of the valves, chambers, surfaces and movement of the heart

embolus

a blood clot that is carried in the bloodstream from one area of the body to another where it blocks a blood vessel

esthesi/o

nervous sensation

eversion

turning outward

extension

increasing the angle between two bones and straightening a limb

flexion

decreasing the angle between two bones, as in bending a limb

fluorescence

emission of glowing light that results from exposure to and absorption of radiation from x-ray

fluor/o

luminous; fluorescence

fluoroscopy

process of using x-rays to produce an image on a fluorescent screen

gait

manner of walking

glial cells

nervous system cell that is supportive and connective in function: astrocyte, cicroglial cell, and ependymal cell

glioblastoma

rapidly growing malignant tumor of the brain

glioblastoma multigorme

highly malignant brain tumor composed of glial cells (astrocytes)

gyri

sheets of nerve cells that produce a rounded fold on the surface of the cerebrum

hemi-

half

hemiparesis

slight paralysis of the right or left half of the body

hydrocephalus

accumulation of fluids in the spaces of the brain

hyperesthesia

excessive sensitivity or feeling, especially of the skin in response to touch or pain

hysterosalpingogram

x-ray record of the uterus and fallopian tubes

hysterosalpingography

x-ray recording of the uterus and fallopian tubes after injection of contrast material

in vitro

process, test or procedure performed, measured or observed outside a living organism

in vivo

process, test or procedure performed, measured or observed within a living organism

in vivo test

trace the amount of radioactive substances within the body

interventional radiology

therapeutic procedures performed by a radiologist

intravenous pyelogram

IVP; a radiological procedure used to visualize abnormalities of the urinary system, including the kidneys, ureters, and bladder.

IVP

intravenous pyelogram

lateral decubitus

lying down on one's side with the x-ray beam horizontally positioned

lucent

to shine

magnetic resonance imaging

magnetic waves and radio waves produce images of organs and tissues in all three planes of the body

medulla oblongata

lower part of the brain closest to the spinal cord; controls breathing, heartbeat and size of blood vessels

meninges

three membranes surrounding and protecting the brain and spinal cord

meningomyelocele

the spinal cord and the meninges protrude to the outside of the body

multiple sclerosis

destruction of the myelin sheath on neurons in the CNS and its replacement by plaques of sclerotic tissue

myasthenia gravis

autoimmune neuromuscular disorder characterized by weakness (asthenia)of voluntary muscles (attached to bones)

myel/o

spinal cord

myelin sheath

fatty white covering over the axon of a nerve cell

myelogram

x-ray record of the spinal cord

myelography

x-ray image of the spinal cord after injection of contrast into the membranes surrounding the spinal cord

myoneural

pertaining to muscle and nerve

narcolepsy

sudden seizures of sleep

neurotransmitter

chemical messenger released at end of a nerve cell

neuropathy

disease of nerves; primarily in the peripheral nervous system

nuclear medicine

medical specialty that studies the uses of radioactive substances in the diagnosis of disease

oblique

positioned at an angle; an x-ray view

occlusion

blockage or obstruction

oligodendroglia

glial cell that forms the myelin sheath covering the axon of the neuron, they have few dendrites (oligodendrocytes)

opaque

obscure

palliative

relieving symptoms, but not curative

parenchymal cell

Esential cell of the nervous system (neuron)

paresthesia

abnormal nervous sensation occurring without apparent cause; examples are tingling, numbness, or prickling sensations

parkinson disease

degeneration of nerve cells that produce the neurotransmitter, dopamine in the brain; leads to tremors, weakness of muscles and slowness of movement

pia mater

thin, delicate, innermost membrane of the meninges

plexus

network of nerves outside the central nervous system; brachial, cervical, lumbosacral plexuses are examples

pons

part of the brainstem anterior to the cerebellum, between the medulla and the rest of the brain. The pons connects the upper and lower portions of the brain

positron emission tomography

computerized radiologic procedure using radioactive glucose or oxygen to image the metabolic activity of cells, such as brain cells

prone

lying in a horizontal position with face down

pyelography

x-ray recording of a kidney after injection of contrast material

quadriplegia

paralysis of all four limbs

radi/o

x-ray, radioactivity; radius

radiculitis

inflammation of the spinal nerve root

radioisotope

radioactive form of an element; radionuclide

radiolucent

permitting the passage of x-rays

radiopaque

obstructing the passage of x-ray

radiopharmaceutical

radioactive drug that is administered safely for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes

sagittal, frontal, and cross sectional images are produced using magnetic and radio waves

MRI

scintigraphy

A diagnostic test in which a two-dimensional picture of a body radiation source is obtained through the use of radioisotopes.

sensory nerve

carry messages to the brain and spinal cord from receptors; afferent nerves

son/o

sound

SPECT

single photon emission computed tomography

spina bifida

congenital defect in the lumbar spinal column caused by imperfect union of vertebral parts; spinal cord and meninges may herniate through vertibral gap

subarachnoid space

is the interval between the arachnoid membrane and pia mater. Contains cerebral spinal fluid

supine

lying horizontally on back with face upward

synapse

space between nerve cells or between nerve cells and muscles and glandular cells

syncopal

pertaining to syncope (fainting)

syncope

fainting; temporary loss of consciousness

tax/o

order, coordination

thalamus

main relay center of the brain; located in the central region or diencephalon of the brain

therapeutic

pertaining to treatment or therapy

tomography

process of taking a series of images to show an organ in layers or depth

tonic-clonic

stiffening of muscles and twitching and jerking movements of the limbs

tonic-clonic seizure

major seizure affecting the brain in epilepsy; grand-mal seizure

tourette syndrome

Neurologic disorder characterized by multiple facial and other body tics

tracer studies

radionuclides are attached to chemicals, used as tags or markers, and followed as they travel through the body

transducer

hand held device that sends and receives ultrasound signals

transient ischemic attack

fleeting episode of ischemia in the brain

ultrasonography

the use of high frequency sound waves beyond the range of normal hearing to produce a record or picture of an organ or tissue

upper GI series

(UGI); involves oral ingestion of barium sulfate so that the esophagus, stomach and duodenum can be visualized

uptake

rate of absorption of radionuclide into an organ or tissue

vag/o

vagus nerve

vagotomy

incision of the vagus nerve

ventricles

cerebrospinal fluid filled canals in the brain

vitr/o

glass

viv/o

life

what does a radiologist do

studies x-rays and related procedures for diagnosis

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