Ad hominem argument
from the Latin meaning "to or against the man," this is an argument that appeals to emotion rather
than reason, to feeling rather than intellect.
when emotion or experience is so objectified by the proper use of form that it seems independent
of the experience of its maker.
narration or description usually restricted to a single meaning because its events, actions,
characters, settings, and objects represent specific abstractions or ideas. Although the elements
in an allegory may be interesting in themselves, the emphasis tends to be on what they ultimately
repetition of initial identical consonant sounds, usually at the beginning of a word or stressed
syllable. Sibilance is alliteration using an "s."
a figure of speech that makes a brief reference to a historical or literary figure, event, or object.
a literary tool used to suggest various ranges of meanings, each of which makes sense, therefore adding depth to a work or passage.
the character in opposition to the protagonist. A rival of the protagonist.
a term used to describe universal symbols that evoke deep and sometimes unconscious
responses in a reader. ex. descents to the
underworld, and ascents to heaven.
similar vowel sounds in stressed syllables that end with different consonants.
the prevailing tone or mood of a work, generally established by setting; i.e. "Something rotten in the state of Denmark"; "Once upon a midnight dreary..."
Coming of Age
the subjective impression of unpleasantness of sound.
The creation of imaginary persons so that they seem life-like. explicit presentation through direct exposition, either in an introductory block, presentation of the character in action,
or internal monologue
a word or phrase that has lost its original effectiveness or power because of overuse.
the use of informalities in speech or writing
ingenious conception/notion expressed through elaborate analogy/metaphor pointing to a
parallel between dissimilar things.
emotional/personal implications words may carry
repetition of internal consonant sounds, but vowels preceding them differ.
a secondary plot that contrasts with the principal plot of work.
literal "dictionary" meaning of a word.
the use of words, speaking primarily of vocabulary and syntax: formal, informal, colloquial, slang.
word with two meanings; sexual innuendo is often involved.
a quality of style marked by pleasing combinations of sounds (subjective).
a person or an object that through strong contrast underscores or
enhances the distinctive characteristics of another.
the introduction early in a story of verbal and dramatic hints that suggest what is to come later.
outline of the structure of a five-act tragedy.
conscious exaggeration used without the intent of literal persuasion.
figurative language used to describe, arouse emotion, or represent
abstractions. imagery uses terms related to the five senses:gustatory image - taste, tactile image- touch visual image-sight olfactory image -smell auditory image- sound kinesthetic image -motion organic image - a natural and internal response
thinking inside one's head; records the internal, experience of the character.
Irony / Ironic
the difference between what appears to be and what actually is true. verbal - words literally state the opposite of the writer's (or speaker's) true meaning. situational-events turn out the opposite of what was expected. dramatic-facts or events are unknown to a character in a play or piece of fiction but known to the reader, audience, or other characters in the work
two opposing images appearing side-by-side, creating, through a sense
of friction, attention to both.
repeated words, ideas, or objects in a work that substantiate a motif.
implied analogy/comparison identifying one object with another (not using like or
as). An extended metaphor continues the comparison throughout the text.
the feeling that the writer evokes in the reader through carefully selected details and words.
A recurring abstract concept in literature.
a self-contradictory combination of words (hurry slowly, bittersweet).
a phrase that while seemingly absurd may actually be well founded and true:
immaculate conception; virgin birth; when I am weak, then I am strong.
Also referred to as parallel construction or parallel structure, this term comes
from Greek roots meaning, "beside one another." It refers to the grammatical or rhetorical framing of words, phrases,
sentences, or paragraph to give structural similarity
a work imitating another, usually serious, piece of work; makes fun of
some familiar style.
giving animals or inanimate objects human characteristics.
Point of View
, the perspective from which a story is told.
lines of writing that conform to the margins of the page.
main character in a drama or novel; usually a good guy
a play on words based on similarity of sounds between two words with different meanings.
describes the variety, the conventions, and the purposes of the major kinds of writing. The four most common rhetorical modes and their purposes are as follows:
exposition- to explain and analyze information by presenting an idea, relevant evidence, and appropriate discussion.
argumentation-to prove the validity of an idea, or point of view, reasoning discussion, and argument that convinces the reader
description- to re-create, or visually present a person, place, event, so that the reader can picture that being described
narration- to tell a story or narrate and event or series of events.
regularity or reoccurrences of specific sounds or kinds of sounds or of
stressed and unstressed syllables.
writing that blends criticism with humor and wit to improve humanity.
direct comparison between two unlike things using like, as, similar to, etc.
Stream of Consciousness
The writer attempts by the stream of consciousness to
reflect all the forces, external and internal, influencing the psychology of a character at a single
manner of expression in writing - arrangement of words that best
expresses the individuality of the author and the intention of the author's mind.
a plot which is subordinate to the main plot of the story, often meant to be
compared and/or contrasted to the main plot.
a concrete or real object used to represent an idea; something that is
itself and yet stands for or
suggests or means something else
the order in which words are put together to form phrases and sentences.
the author's comment about the aspect. It implies the use of a subject and a
predicate in making a thematic statement.
author's attitude or feeling towards the subject and/or toward the audience in a