a relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience
learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences (as in operant conditioning).
the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies only observable and measurable behavior (without reference to mental processes). Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2).
method of learning in which a neutral stimulus can be used to elicit a response that is usually a natural response to another stimulus
a stimulus that before conditioning does not produce a particular response
unconditioned response (UR)
in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US), such as salivation when food is in the mouth.
unconditioned stimulus (US)
in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally—naturally and automatically—triggers a response (the UR)
conditioned stimulus (CS)
in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response (e.g., the ringing of a bell causing salivation in a dog)
conditioned response (CR)
in classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS). (e.g., salivating when a bell rings)
acquisition (in classical conditioning)
the initial stage in classical conditioning; the phase associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus eventually comes to elicit a conditioned response.
a procedure in which the conditioned stimulus in one conditioning experience is paired with a new neutral stimulus, creating a second (often weaker) conditioned stimulus. For example, an animal that has learned that a tone predicts food might then learn that a light predicts the tone and begin responding to the light alone. (Also called second-order conditioning.)
the diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus (US) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS)
in classical conditioning, the reappearance, after a rest period, of an extinguished conditioned response
in classical conditioning, the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses
in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus
a classically conditioned dislike for and avoidance of a particular food that develops when an organism becomes ill after eating the food.