relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience.
any event that increases the probability that a response will occur again.
events that precede a response.
effects that follow a response.
an automatic, unlearned response.
an antecedent stimulus that doesn't produce a response is linked with one that does.
learning based on the consequences of responding.
a stimulus that does not evoke a response. (bell)
a stimulus that, because of learning, will elicit a response. (bell)
a stimulus innately capable of producing a response. (meat)
a reflex that is not learned or innate elicited by an unconditioned stimulus. (reflex salivation)
a learned response elicited by a conditioned stimulus. (salivation)
the period in conditioning during which a response is reinforced.
the weakening of a conditioned response through removal of reinforcement.
the reappearance of a learned response after its apparent extinction.
the tendency to respond to stimuli similar to, but not identical to, a conditioned stimulus.
the learned ability to respond differently to stimuli.
conditioned emotional responses
a learned emotional reaction to a previously neutral stimulus.
reducing fear or anxiety by repeatedly exposing a person to emotional stimuli while the person is deeply relaxed.
law of effect
responses that lead to desirable effects are repeated; those that produce undesirable results do not.
occurs when a response is followed by a reward or other positive event.
any event that follows a response and decreases its likelihood of occurring again.
occurs when a response is followed by an end to discomfort or by the removal of an unpleasant event.
a tangible secondary reinforcer such as money, gold stars, poker chips, etc.
schedules of reinforcement
a rule or plan for determining which responses will be reinforced.
a schedule in which every correct response is followed by a reinforcer.
a pattern in which only a portion of all responses are reinforced.
partial reinforcement effect
responses acquired with partial reinforcement are more resistant to extinction.
fixed ratio schedule
a set number of correct responses must be made to get a reinforcer (ex. every 4 correct responses).
variable ratio schedule
a varied number of correct must be made to get a reinforcer (ex. reinforcer given after 3 to 7 correct responses, changes randomly).
fixed interval schedule
a reinforcer is given only when a correct response is made after a set amount of time has passed; responses made during time interval are not rewarded.
variable interval schedule
a reinforcer is given for the first correct response made after a varied amount of time has passed since the last reinforced response; responses made during time interval are not rewarded.
natural, unlearned reinforcers such as food or water.
a learned reinforcers such as grades, approval, success, or attention.
learning to make a response in order to end an aversive stimulus.
learning to make a response in order to postpone or prevent discomfort.
learning that occurs without obvious reinforcement and that remains unexpressed until reinforcement is provided.
learning achieved by watching and imitating the actions of another or noting the consequences of those actions.
a person who serves as an example in observational learning.
the mental system for receiving, encoding, storing, organizing, altering, and retrieving information.
converting information into a form in which it will be retained in memory.
holding information in memory for later use.
recovering information from storage in memory.
the first stage of memory, which holds an exact record of incoming information for a few seconds or less.
a brief continuation of sensory activity in the auditory system after a sound is heard.
a mental image or visual representation.
the memory system used to hold small amounts of information for relatively brief time periods.
another name for short-term memory, especially when it is used for thinking and problem solving.
the memory system used for relatively permanent storage of meaningful information.
meaningful units of information, such as numbers, letters, words, or phrases.
information bits grouped into larger units.
silently repeating or mentally reviewing information to hold it in short-term memory.
rehearsal that links new information with existing memories and knowledge.
recognizing or updating memories on the basis of logic, reasoning, or the addition of new information.
long-term memories of conditioned responses and learned skills. (driving, typing, etc.)
memories that are reconstructed or expanded by starting with one memory and then following chains of association to other, related memories.
that part of long-term memory containing specific factual information. (random facts)
a subpart of declarative memory that records impersonal knowledge about the world. (names, words, dates, etc.)
a subpart of declarative memory that records personal experiences that are linked with specific times and places. (what, where, when etc.)
to supply or reproduce memorized information with a minimum of external cues.
serial position effect
the tendency to make the most errors in remembering the middle terms of an ordered list.
an ability to correctly identify previously learned information.
a memory that a person is aware of having; a memory that is consciously retrieved.
a memory that a person does not know exists; a memory that is retrieved unconsciously. (keys on keyboard)
a graph that shows the amount of memorized information remembered after varying lengths of time.
physical changes in nerve cells or brain activity when memories are stored.
the fading or weakening of memories assumed to occur when memory traces become weaker.
memory influenced by one's bodily state at the time of learning and at the time of retrieval; improved memory occurs when bodily states match.
the tendency for new memories to impair retrieval of older memories, and the reverse.
the tendency for new memories to interfere with old memories.
the tendency for old memories to interfere with new memories.
memories created at times of high emotion that seem especially vivid.
a brain structure associated with emotion and the transfer of information from short-term memory to long-term memory.
a practice schedule that alternates study periods with brief rests.
a practice schedule in which studying continues for long periods, without interruption.
BoBo doll studies, observational learning.
if the model is reinforced in their actions, an onlooker is more likely to repeat it.
if the model is punished because of their actions, an onlooker is less likely to repeat it.
behaviorist, we learn based on the consequences of our actions, operant learning.
little things that initially have no meaning, but equal a bigger prize later on (a form of bribery).
shaping by successive approximations
rewarding baby steps, "how to teach a dolphin to dance".
classical conditioning, experiment with dogs.
responding to stimuli that are similar to the original condition stimulus.
responding differently to similar stimuli.
when a conditioned stimulus no longer brings about conditioned response.
when relation between a condition stimulus and a conditioned response comes back.