Human Anatomy and Physiology Ch 5 P1 Beck Book

52 terms by Atechera1

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adipose tissue

collection of fat cells

amitosis

the direct method of cell division characterized by simple division of the nucleus without formation of chromosomes

anabolism

process of building up of larger molecules for smaller ones, requires energy,its a contsructive phase of cellular metabolism

anaphase

In cell division, or mitosis, chromatids detach and separate to become chromosomes again 4th part of the cell cycle

anatomy

the study of the structure of the bosy and the interrelationship of its parts

areolar tissue

loose connective tissue that binds the skin to the underlying tissues and fills the spaces between the muscles

atoms

all substances are made of subatomic particles that form these, are arranged in specific patterns and structures called molecules, molecules are arranged in such a wayas to produce compounds or matter

cardiac muscle tissue

tissues occurring in the heart, involuntary, directly stimulated by nerve impulses, pumps blood into the heart

catabolism

the breaking down of larger substances or molecules into smaller ones, this process releases energy that can be stored for other reactions such as muscle contraction

cell

basic functional units of all living matter

cell membrane

a thin covering of the outer surface of a cell, or cytoplasm, transports materials from outside and inside the cell, helps to control cell activity

cellular metabolism

all chemical reactions within a cell that transforms food for cell growth and operation

centrosome

structure near the nucleus with 2 rod shaped centrioles, divides in 2 parts during mitosis, helps distribute chromosomes

columnar

cells formed together that are much taller than they are wide, like columns

cuboidal

The cubic shape of a type of epithelial cell.

cytoplasm

all of the substance within a cell wall other than the nucleus

cytoplasmic organelles

specialized cellular compartments, each performing its own job to maintain the life of the cell.

differentiation

the process during early developmental stages, where the repeated division of the ovum results in many specialized cells that differ from one another in composition and function

fibrocartilage

found between the vertebrae and in the pubic symphasis, where strong support and limited range of motion are required

fibrous connective tissues

composed of collagen and elastin fibers that are closely arranged to form tendons and ligaments

enzymes

protein substances that act as organic catalysts for chemical reactions in metabolism while remaining unchanged themselves

epithileal tissues

protective layer that functions in the process of absorption, secretion, excretion, and protection

fascia

fibrous connective tissue that forms a network throughout the body, surrounding every structure to support, seperate and give shape to the body

histology

the study of cells, and micro scopic organisms

hyaline cartilage

type of cartilage that contains little fibrous tissues made up of cells, clear or translucent , found in nose, trachea, and on the end of bones and in moveable joints

interphase

normal state of the cell,during which most of the cellular work and growth are done, chromosomes remain in thin threads, later during mitosis become rod-like

ligaments

bands of fibrous tissues that connect bone to bone

metaphase

stage in cell division, or mitosis, when chromosomes arrange themselves in a plane called equitorial plane, nuclear membrane and nucleolos are absent

mitosis

process of cell division in which a cell divides into 2 cells identical to the parent cell

molecules

groups of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds

mucous membranes

line the digestive and upper respitory tract to produce mucous, a thick sticky substance that acts as a protectiant and lubricant

nerve tissues

composed of nuerons, sensitive to specifc types of stimuli, able to transmit impulses , act as channels of messages to and from the brain

neurons

the structural unit of the nervous system

organ system

A group of organs that work together in performing vital body functions.

organs

groups of tissues that work together to perform a specific function or related functions or jobs

perichondrium

the membrane covering cartilage

periosteum

the fibrous membrane that functions to protect the bone and serves as an attachment of tendons and ligaments

physiology

The study of the functions of body structures

prophase

the first stage of mitosis or meiosis in eukaryotic cell division, during which the nuclear envelope breaks down and strands of chromatin form into chromosomes, stage during mitosis where chromosomes which are composed of DNA which house the genes, become larger and more defined,

protoplasm

colorless jelly like substance in cells in which food elements such as protein, fats, carbohydrates, mineral salts and water are present

reticular tissue

the fine fibers that form together in the liver and lymphoid organs

serous membranes

line the body cavities and sometimes the outermost parts of the organs, produce a serous fluid, a watery substance that also act as a lubricant

skeletal muscle

are attached to bone by tendons, responsible for moving limbs, facial expression, speaking and other voluntary movements

smooth muscle

lacks striations and can not be stimulated to contract by conscious effort, work subconsciously, work involuntarily

squamous

The flat, tile-like shape of a type of epithelial cell.

striated muscles

-Consists of many muscle fibers
-Muscle fibers consist of myofibrils
-Myofibrils give the striated look, striped looking

superficial fascia

the connecting layer between the skin and those structures underlying the skin

synovial membrane

a connective tissue membrane lining cavities and capsules in and around joints

telophase

the final stage of meiosis or mitosis, in which the separated chromosomes reach the opposite poles of the dividing cell and the nuclei of the daughter cells form around the two sets of chromosomes

tendons

bands that attach muscles to bones

tissues

groups of similar cells that perform a specific function in an organism

voluntary muscles

muscles that can be consciously controlled (skeletal muscle)

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