Wilbur Extra Credit Questions

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1. The wealthiest people in pre-Revolutionary America were primarily

Northern merchants and southern planters

2. The Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) heightened the sectional crisis because it

Repealed the Missouri Compromise

3. During Reconstruction, Southern Blacks typically did which of the following?

Tilled farms as renters and sharecroppers

4. The Ordinances of 1785 and 1787 were notable accomplishments because they

Initiated a territorial policy that provided fore the orderly creation of new states.

5. The American Transcendentalists may best be characterized as which of the following?

A group of Northern intellectuals who shared a belief in the value of human intuition, the presence of divinity in nature, and an emotional comprehension of God

6. Of the following, which was the most importance cause of agrarian discontent in the Unites States in the last quarter of the nineteenth century?

The feeling that the railroads were exploiting the farmers.

7. The first Great Awakening was

A religious revival that occurred throughout the American colonies

8. "Let me...warn you in the most solemn manner against the ruinous effects of the spirit of party...The alternate domination of one faction over another, sharpened by the spirit of revenge natural to party dissension...is itself a frightful despotism." This statement reflected which of the following political positions?

George Washington's concern about the development of political parties during his administration.

9. Which of the following best characterizes the response of Great Britain and France to the American Civil War?

They saw advantages in a divided Union, but pursued cautious policies toward both sides.

10. Frances' support for the United States during the American Revolutionary War was motivated primarily by

A desire to weaken its rival, Great Britain

11. Thomas Jefferson opposed some of Alexander Hamilton's programs because Jefferson believed that

Hamilton's programs favored wealthy financial interests

12. Which of the following did NOT contribute to the United States decision to declare war against Great Britain in 1812?

American military and economic preparedness for war

13. Which of the following provided sources of revenue for the federal government in the period form 1800 to 1860?

iii. Customs duties
iv. Land sales

14. The horizontal integration of American industry (i.e. one firm acquiring control of other firms that produce the same product) that occurred at the end of the nineteenth century was primarily a response to

Economic competition

15. Which of the following most accurately describes the attitude of seventeenth-century Puritans toward religious liberty?

They tolerated no one who's expressed religious views varied from their own views.

16. In part, President Lincoln refrained from taking action to emancipate slaves until the Civil War had been in progress for almost two years because

He sought to retain the loyalty of border states

17. Which of the following would have been most likely to support the presidential campaign of William Jennings Bryan in 1896?

A Kansas farmer

18. Which of the following statements is true about immigration to the United States during the last two decades of the nineteenth century?

Southern and Eastern Europeans came in larger numbers than earlier in the century.

20. All of the following conditions influenced the development of American agriculture during the first half of the nineteenth century EXCEPT

A widespread interest in conserving soil and natural resources

19. By the time of the Revolution, the American colonists had generally come to believe that creation of a republic would solve the problems of monarchical rule because a republic would establish

A small, limited government responsible to the people

21. President Jackson's Native American policy resulted in which of the following?

The removal of the Cherokee from the Southeast to settlements across the Mississippi

22. "...the descendants of African who were imported into this country, and sold as slaves...are not included, and were not indented to be included, under the word 'citizens' in the Constitution, and can there fore claim none of the rights and privileges which that instrument provides for and secures to citizens of the United States." This passage is from which of the following?

Dred Scott v. Sanford

23. "In 1800 schoolchildren (ages 5-19) spend an average of only fourteen days in school each year. By 1850 this figure had nearly doubled, going to twenty-six days, and by 1860 it had risen to forty days per year, almost triple the figure for 1800. By 1860 the literacy rate at age twenty had attained modern levels, exceeding ninety percent among Whites." This passage describes results brought about chiefly through

State and local efforts on behalf of public schools

24. In which year would the population of an Atlantic seacoast city most likely have appeared as follows?

1850

25. All of the following were considered legitimate functions of the federal government in the late nineteenth century EXCEPT

Assuring the welfare of the poor and unemployed

26. In the history of American transportation, the canal era occurred during which of the following periods?

1820-1850

27. Which of the following is a correct statement about the use of slave labor in colonial Virginia?

It spread rapidly in the late seventeenth century, as Blacks displaced White indentured servants in the tobacco fields.

28. The French and Indian War was a pivotal point in America's relationship to Great Britain because it led Great Britain to

Impose revenue taxes on the colonies

29. Deists of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries believed that

Natural laws, set by the Creator, govern the operation of the universe

30. Marbury v. Madison (1803) is famous for establishing the principle of

Judicial review

31. A proposal for the uncompensated emancipation of American slaves was advanced by

William Lloyd Garrison in The Liberator in 1831

32. The "Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions" issued by the Seneca Falls Convention demanded

Greater rights for women

33. In the pre-Civil War era, the railroad's most important impact on the economy was the

Accessibility to Eastern urban markets provided to Midwestern farmers

34. The North's advantages over the South at the outbreak of the Civil War included all of the following EXCEPT

Greater agreement over war aims

35. The main issue raised for historians by the differing reports of Henry's speech is the

Credibility of historical evidence

36. Which of the following facts casts the greatest doubt on the accuracy of Jefferson's note confirming the concluding phrase in Henry's speech?

Jefferson's note was written fifty-two years after the speech was delivered.

37. The mercantilist system in the eighteenth century led to

The subordination of the colonial economy to that of the mother country

38. The tribes of the Iroquois Confederacy were distinctive in that they

Formed the most important Native American political organization to confront the colonists

39. A major defect in the national government established by the Articles of Confederation was that it lacked

The authority to tax

40. All of the following statements about the delegates to the Pennsylvania state convention to ratify the United States Constitution are supported by the data in the table above EXCEPT:

The size of each occupational group was probably proportionate to its size in the Pennsylvania population.

41. Early American diplomats to European nations often gained advantages for the United States by

Exploiting European rivalries

42. The hostility of the Know-Nothing party was directed primarily against

Irish and German Catholic immigrants

43. The term "cult of domesticity" refers to

The idealization of women in their roles as wives and mothers during the nineteenth century

44. An important reason for the proclamation of the Monroe Doctrine was to

Protect republican institutions of government in the Western Hemisphere

45. Which of the following most likely increased Mexican suspicion of United States territorial objectives in the 1830's and 1840's?

Rhetoric on "manifest destiny" in the American press

46. Which of the following would most likely have said, "...children should be children as long as they can"?

A mid-nineteenth-century educational reformer

47. In the presidential campaign of 1860, which of the following positions was asserted by the Republican party platform with respect to slavery?

The extension of slavery to United States territories should be prohibited by the federal government, but slavery should be protected in the states where it already existed.

48. All of the following elements of the Radical Republican program were implemented during Reconstruction EXCEPT

Provision of 40 acres to each freedman

49. The second Sioux War (1875-1876), which saw the defeat of Custer at the Battle of the Little Big Horn, was caused by all of the following EXCEPT

A concentrated effort on the part of the major Protestant denominations to convert the Sioux to Christianity

50. Which of the following was a widely held belief among the Founding Fathers of the United States?

Widespread ownership of property is a bulwark of republican government.

51. Which of the following is correct abut the tariffs passed during the period 1816-1828?

They were the first tariffs whose major purpose was protection.

52. Which of the following had the greatest impact on the institution of slavery in the United States in the first quarter of the nineteenth century?

Invention of the cotton gin

53. The nullification controversy of 1832-1833 was significant, in part, because it

Enhanced Andrew Jackson's reputation as a strong president

54. The establishment of Brook Farm and the Oneida Community in the antebellum United States reflected

The blossoming of perfectionist aspiration

55. "From the beginning of the settlement of America, the frontier regions have exercised a steady influence toward democracy...American democracy is fundamentally the outcome of the experience of the American people in dealing with the West..." These statements are part of a historical theory known as

The Turner thesis

56. The Reconstruction Acts of 1867 provided for

Temporary Union military supervision of the ex-Confederacy

57. In the late nineteenth-century controversy over the social and religious implications of Darwinian theory, all of the following popular beliefs were felt to be threatened by Darwin EXCEPT the

Reality of change in the world

58. The Whigs of the 1830's and 1840's differed from the Jacksonian Democrats in that the Whigs

Supported the American System of Henry Clay

59. All of the following statements about pre-Civil War American slavery are true EXCEPT:

Because of the relative ease with which slaves could gain their freedom by manumission or by purchase, the proportion of freedmen to slaves was almost equal in many areas of the South.

60. The anticombination laws passed by numerous states in the late 1880's were a response to which of the following organizational innovations?

The use of stockholding trusts to create business oligopolies

61. Which of the following is a correct statement about the Gilded Age?

Business activity expanded and contracted frequently.

62. After 1763, changes in the British imperial system threatened the interests of which of the following groups of American colonists?

i. Land speculators with interests west of the Appalachians
ii. Newspaper editors and lawyers
iii. Farmers wishing to settle in the Ohio River valley
iv. Boston smugglers

63. The Navigation Acts were part of the British policy known as

Mercantilism

64. Jacksonian Democracy was distinguished by the belief that

Political participation by the common man should be increased

65. President Monroe articulated the Monroe Doctrine in his 1823 address to Congress primarily in order to

Warn European nations against further colonial ventures in the Western Hemisphere

66. Which of the following transportation developments opened the West to settlement and trade between 1790 and 1830?

Turnpikes and canals

67. Which of the following best describes the situation of freedmen in the decade following the Civil War?

The majority entered sharecropping arrangements with former masters or other nearby planters.

68. Which of the following was a serious constitutional question after the Civil War?

The political and legal status of the former Confederate states

69. The Supreme Court decision in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) did which of the following?

Sanctioned separate but equal public facilities for African Americans.

70. The Dutch settled New Netherland primarily to

Expand their commercial and mercantile network

71. France negotiated a treaty of alliance with the new American nation in 1778 following

The defeat of the British General Burgoyne at Saratoga

72. Which of the following is true of the case of Marbury v. Madison?

It affirmed the principle of judicial review

73. After the Revolution, the concept of "republican mother" suggested that

Women would be responsible for raising their children, especially their sons, to be virtuous citizens of the republic.

74. All of the following accurately describe Jefferson's purchase of the Louisiana Territory from France EXCEPT:

It ended the threat of American Indian raids on western settlements.

75. President Jackson resisted the admission of Texas into the Union in 1836 primarily because he

Feared that debate over the admission of Texas would ignite controversy about slavery

76. The Republican Party originated in the mid-1850s as a sectional party committed to which of the following?

Immediate emancipation of the slaves

77. In 1890 the most important source of revenue for the federal government was

Customs taxes

78. In which of the following British North American colonies was slavery legally established by the early 1700s?

All the colonies

79. In the United States, the Haitian rebellion of the 1790s prompted

An increased fear of slave revolts in the South

80. Which of the following statements about African American soldiers during the Civil War is correct?

For most of the war, they were paid less than White soldiers of equal rank.

81. Prior to the Civil War, a transformation occurred in the work force of the New England textile mills as New England farm girls were replaced by

Irish immigrants

82. Which of the following was true of the United States Constitution as adopted at the Constitutional Convention?

It was built on a series of compromises.

83. The Jefferson administration advocated which of the following changes as a means of restoring republican ideals?

Reducing the scope of activities of the federal government

84. The Wilmot Proviso specifically provided for

The prohibition of slavery in lands acquired from Mexico in the Mexican War

85. The Missouri Compromise did which of the following?

Allowed Maine to enter the Union as a free state.

86. All of the following contributed to discontent among soldiers in the Continental Army EXCEPT:

Most soldiers were draftees

87. Jacob Riis' How the Other Half Lives is a study of

Immigrant urban poverty and despair in the 1890s

88. Alexander Hamilton's financial program was most favorable to

Eastern merchants

89. The goal of the American Colonization Society was to

Return freed slaves to Africa

90. The most unpopular and leas successful of President Thomas Jefferson's policies was his

Adherence to neutrality in dealing with England and France

91. Which of the following principles was established by the Dred Scott decision?

National legislation could not limit the spread of slavery in the territories.

92. The precipitating factor in the 1894 Pullman strike was Pullman's

Cutting of wages without proportionate cuts in company housing rents

93. All of the following contributed to the growth of the free African American population in the United States in the early nineteenth century EXCEPT

Federal constitutional provisions for emancipation

94. The Compromise of 1850 did which of the following?

Enacted a stringent fugitive slave law.

95. Throughout the first half of the nineteenth century, women reformers were most active in the cause of

Temperance

96. Which of the following was true of most Puritans who emigrated to seventeenth-century New England?

They considered themselves non-Separatists

97. The Federalist papers challenged the conventional political wisdom of the eighteenth century when they asserted that

A large republic offered the best protection of minority rights

98. In the last quarter of the nineteenth century, American agriculture was characterized by

An increase in acres under cultivation

99. Which of the following statements about Africans brought as slaves to the British North American colonies is true?

They maintained cultural practices brought from Africa.

100. Pinckney's Treaty with Spain is considered a diplomatic highlight of Washington's administration because it

Allowed the United States to use the port of New Orleans

101. The immediate effect of Andrew Jackson's attack on the Second Bank of the United States in 1834 was

An expansion of credit and speculation

102. The primary purpose of the Proclamation of 1763 was to

Avoid conflict with the trans-Appalachian Indians

103. By the 1750s, the British colonies on the North American mainland were characterized by all of the following EXCEPT

Disdain for British constitutional monarchy

104. "Let Southern oppressors tremble...I shall strenuously contend for immediate enfranchisement...I will be as harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice." The author of the statement above was

William L. Garrison

105. After four westward voyages to the New World, Christopher Columbus believed that he had reached

Asia

106. All of the following were diseases brought to the New World by European explorers and colonizers EXCEPT

Syphilis

107. Of the African slaves brought to the New World by Europeans from 1492 through 1770, the vast majority were shipped to

The Caribbean

108. France's colonies in North America in the 17th Century centered on

The St. Lawrence River

109. The powerful Aztec empire that the Spaniards encountered in the 16th Century was the heir to which earlier Mesoamerican civilizations?

Olmecs and Mayas

110. All of the following European powers competed for control of the Caribbean during the 17th Century EXCEPT

Sweden

111. The advantage which investors gained through joint stock companies was that

Risk was limited

112. One of the most important reasons that the Virginia colony at Jamestown survived its first few years was the

Support of the Algonquin Indians

113. One reason that relations between English colonists and Indians deteriorated in the Chesapeake By region during the 17th Century was the

Spread of tobacco farming

114. Which of the following colonies were founded as haven for oppressed religious minorities?

Massachusetts Bay and Pennsylvania

115. One of the most significant differences between the early 17th Century colonist in Massachusetts Bay and those in Chesapeake Bay was that

Women had significantly more property in Massachusetts Bay than in Chesapeake Bay

116. Massachusetts Bay colonists fought a war with the Pequot Indians in 1637 after

English settlers threatened the Pequots' power in New England

117. Anne Hutchinson threatened the established order in Massachusetts Bay by advocating

A covenant of grace

118. The colonies which were the most important havens for Quakers during the 17th Century were Pennsylvania and

New Jersey

119. England began to establish colonies in the New World during the 16th Century for all of the following reasons EXCEPT to

Grow cotton for England's textile industry

120. Slave owners drew on the African skills of their slaves in all of the following areas EXCEPT

Plantation management

121. The most successful and longest-lasting Indian resistance movement in colonial North America was the

Pueblo revolt

122. European colonists in South Carolina during the 17th and 18th centuries were dependent on Indian labor to supply

Deerskins and Indian slaves

123. King Philip's War, fought between colonists in New England and Wampanoags in 1675, was initiated because of

Colonial encroachments on tribal lands

124. The Half Way Covenant was created by the Puritan hierarchy to

Give partial membership in the church to those who were not yet completely converted

125. Which of the following assumptions is a central part of mercantilism?

The goal of each nation was to become self-sufficient

126. Which of the following is an accurate statement about colonial society in the mid-18th Century?

The vast majority lived in rural areas

127. An educational profile of the population of British North America in the 18th Century would reveal that

The vast majority of colonists could neither read nor write

128. The Great Awakening which swept the colonies from the 1730s through the 1770s is best described as an example of

Religious revivalism

129. During the mid-18th Century, all of the following crises challenged the political status of the colonies EXCEPT

The Pequot War in New England

130. During the 1760s, political friction increased between the colonies and the British government because the colonies generally believed that

The British could tax the colonists only with their consent

131. "Early to bed, early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise." This quotation from the 18th Century reflects a contemporary attitude of

Pragmatism

132. In the decade following the end of the Seven Years War, one of the major challenges to political leaders in the British North American colonies was to

Find ways to let toe colonies control internal affairs while remaining subject to the British empire

133. To Britain's Parliament, the Townshend Acts of 1767 appeared to be similar to the Navigation Acts. To many colonists, however, the Townshend Acts were unacceptable because they

Raised money to pay for royal officials stationed in the colonies

134. One of the most important long-term political activities of the Daughters of the Liberty was

Spinning their own cloth

135. Parliament enacted the Tea Act of 1773 primarily to

Save the East India Company from bankruptcy

136. "The Declaration of Rights and Grievances" enacted by the First Continental Congress was written in direct response to the

Intolerable Acts

137. The American treaty with France in 1778 brought all of the following benefits to the American cause during the Revolutionary War EXCEPT

Spain entered the war as an ally of the United States

138. Americans benefited greatly from the 1783 Treaty of Paris between the United States and Britain essentially because

The United States was granted independence unconditionally

139. In 1776, when Abigail Adams implored her husband, John Adams, to "Remember the Ladies" as he created a new government, she argued that

Women would not feel bound to support the laws of a government in which they had no actual representation

140. Which of the following is an accurate statement about the status of African-Americans in the United States during the two decades following the Revolutionary War?

Boston and Philadelphia were considered the most hospitable cites by free blacks

141. In the 1770s, the chief aim of those who wrote the new state constitutions was to

Prevent state governments from becoming tyrannical

142. The United States under the Articles of Confederation was called a "firm league of friendship" because

The national government was not given the authority to demand that states act together

143. All of the following were problems encountered by the government of the Articles of Confederation EXCEPT

Excessive centralization of power in the Congress

144. The rebellion of Daniel Shays in 1786 grew out of a need to

Prevent the collection of taxes

145. In 1795 the Treaty of Greenville between the United States and the Miami Confederacy established the principle that

Indian tribes had sovereignty over lands not formally ceded to the US

146. The question whether to count slaves for the purpose of allocating representatives to each state under the Constitution was resolved with the decision that

Three-fifths of the slaves would be counted

147. The Second Amendment guaranteed the right to "keep and bear arms" because of the need for

A well regulated militia

148. Many historians believe that in order to gain the support of the South in 1790 for his controversial financial plans, Alexander Hamilton offered to

Locate the national capital in Virginia

149. The Democratic-Republican societies, one of the earliest groups of political dissenters, were first organized in opposition to

Washington's foreign policies

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