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Knossos

central city of Minoan civilization

Homer

the Iliad and the Odyssey

acropolis

fortified place and religious center

agora

open area used as a market and meeting place

Cleisthenes

brought democracy to athens

Mount Olympus

home of the greek gods

Socrates

believed "the unexamined life is not worth living"

Thucydides

the greatest historian of the ancient world

Aristarchus of Samos

astronomer in the Hellenistic Age

Stoicism

taught by Zeno

Estrucans

launched a building program that turned Rome into a city

plebians

less wealthy landholders, craftspeople, merchants, and small farmers.

triumvirate

a government by three people with equal power

Antony and Cleopatra

comitted suicide after being defeated by Octavian

paterfamilias

head of the Roman family

insulae

apartment blocks

Sadducees

favored cooperation with the Romans

Theodosius the Great

made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire

Vandals

German tribe that sacked Rome

Romulus Augustulus

deposed by Germanic head of the army, marking the fall of the Western Roman Empire

Bedouins

nomadic Arabs who lived in the desert rather than in towns

Hijrah

journey of Muhammad and his followers to Madinah

jihad

"struggle in the way of God"

caliph

chief Islamic religious authority

sultan

"holder of power"

Ibn Sina

wrote a medical encyclopedia that stressed contagious nature of diseases

Ibn-Rushd

Muslim philosopher

muezzin

Muslim crier who calls the faithful to prayer five times a day

minaret

most famous section of the Great Mosque of Samarra

Ibn-Khaldun

Muslim historian who wrote Muqaddima (Introduction to History)

wergild

amount of money paid by a criminal to the family of the person he had killed or injured

Gregory I

strengthened the power of the papacy

count

German noble who acted as the king's representative in a certain local area

Magyars

people from western Asia who settled on the plains of Hungary

vassalage

the heart of feudalism

fief

the grant of land made to a vassal

Doomsday Book

first census since Roman times

Phillip IV

created the first French parliament

Justinian

codified Roman law, resulting in The Body of Civil Law

Richard the Lionhearted

negotiated a settlement with Saladin to allow Christians access to Jerusalem

Ptolemaic system

Earth at the center of a series of concetric spheres

Galileo Galilei

first European to study stars using a telescope

philosophers

the intellectuals of the Enlightment

Rene Descartes

developed a philosophy based on the idea" I think, therefore I am"

tabula rasa

blank mind

laissez-faire

idea that the state should not interfere with the economy

Balthasar Neumann

architect of the Church of the Fourteen Saints

George Washington

commander in chief of the Continental Army

Articles of Confederation

the American nation's first constitution

Bill of Rights

ten amendments that guranteed certain freedoms

Guglielmo Marconi

sent the first radio waves across the Atlantic

internal-combustion engine

provided a new source of power in transportation

revisionists

Marxists who rejected the revolutionary approach

working class

made up nearly 80 percent of the European population in the early 1900's

Emmeline Pankhurst

founded the Women's Social and Political Union

ministerial responsibility

idea that the prime minister is responsible to the lesgislative body and not to the executive officer

Triple Alliance

Germany,Austria-Hungary, and Italy

Marie Curie

discovered the first radioactive element, radium

Sigmund Freud

published major new theories of human behavior in The Interpretation of Dreams

Claude Monet

Impressionist painter who sought to capture the interplay of light, water, and sky

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