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Practice test questions from the book.

The image transmitted by the lens is recorded by the:

-lens elements
-aperture
-shutter
-Film

Film
pg. 4

The length of time that light strikes a light-sensitive surface when making an exposure is controlled by the:

-aperture
-shutter
-viewfinder
-lens elements

Shutter
pg. 4

The term "ISO speed" is used to describe

-the length of time the light strikes the light sensitive surface inside your camera
-the aperture
-a sensor's or film's sensitivity to light
-the memory card's capacity

a sensor's or film's sensitivity to light, a sensor's or film's sensitivity to light
pg. 4

It is best to turn a digital camera off when

-adjusting the shutter speed
-changing the aperture
-setting the ISO
-changing or installing the memory card

removing or installing a memory card.
pg. 5

All of the following are factors which control exposure except:

-aperture size
-shutter speed
-focus
-film speed

focus
pg. 6

If you are working with an automatic camera, and you set the aperture and the camera sets the shutter speed, you are working in which mode?

-manual
-programmed automatic exposure
-shutter-priority
-aperture-priority

Aperture Priority
pg. 7

When working with a manual camera, you will know the roll of film is completely exposed when:

-the film rewinds automatically
-the LCD panel reads "0"
-the advance lever will not turn
-the needle centers between + and -

the advance lever will not turn.
pg. 8

The camera mechanism that regulates the amount of time film or the sensor is exposed to light is the:

aperture
shutter
cable release
autoexposure mode

shutter
pg. 18

What kind of camera allows you to change the position of the lens and back relative to each other so that you can more precisely control focus or perspective?

A view camera
A rangefinder camera
A compact camera
Single-lens reflex camera

A view camera
pg. 32

Which of the following would be a suggested shutter speed to stop the action of a child running, parallel to the film plane, about 25 ft from the camera?

1/60 sec
1/125 sec
1/250 sec
1/500 sec

1/250 sec
pg. 21

The adjustable diaphragm which is made of metal blades that determines the amount of light entering the camera is called:

the shutter
the viewfinder
lens aperture
reflex mirror

lens aperture
pg. 24

An f-stop which would admit a large amount of light into the camera and produce very little depth of field would be:

f/2
f/11
f/16
f/22

f/2
pg. 24

Which of the following numbers is not a standard f-stop?

f/.10
f/2.8
f/11
f/64

f/.10
pg. 24

Which of the following f-stops would represent stopping down 1/2 stop from f/2.8?

f/2
f/2.3
f/3.4
f/4

f/3.4
pg. 24

What shutter speed setting keeps the shutter open as long as the release button is held down?

T (time setting)
B (bulb setting)
L (long setting)
Focal plane

B (bulb setting)
pg. 18

Parallax error occurs in which type of camera:

SLR
rangefinder
monorail view camera
field camera

rangefinder
pg. 31

A type of shutter that is constructed with a number of small overlapping metal blades and is usually located inside the lens itself in view cameras, point and shoot cameras, and many medium-format cameras is called a:

SLR
focal plane shutter
Gobo
leaf shutter

leaf shutter
pg. 19

The relationship between focal length and angle of view is such that the shorter the focal length the:

wider the angle of view
narrower the angle of view
sharper the image
larger the image will appear on the film

wider the angle of view
pg.46

A technique that is used to maintain sharp focus on a subject that is moving toward you is called:

manual focus
automatic focus
zone focus
follow focus

follow focus
pg. 50

A wide-area focus system is an automatic focusing system that allows the photographer to:

choose the area that will be in focus
shoot with a wide angle lens
shoot at fast shutter speeds
manually set exposures

choose the area that will be in focus
pg. 52

The relative aperture is equal to the lens focal length divided by the:

f-stop
plane of focus
aperture diameter
angle of view

aperture diameter
pg. 56

Which of the following is not likely to affect the depth of field?

the aperture
the shutter speed
the focal length of the lens
the distance the photographer is from the subject

the shutter speed
pg. 57

A useful focusing technique to use when you want to shoot rapidly in a situation in which you can predict the approximately where, if not exactly when, action will take place is called:

Focusing on the hyperfocal distance
Zone focusing
parallax
perspective control

Zone focusing
pg. 58

The relationship between focal length and magnification is such that the longer the focal length the:

greater the depth of field
less the magnification
wider the angle of view
greater the magnification

wider the angle of view

When buying a lens, it is a good idea to buy a lens shade that

matches the color of your camera
matches the focal length of the lens
is wider than your lens's focal length
is two times the focal length of your lens

matches the focal length of the lens

Most lenses are sharpest at an aperture closed down

three f-stops from the widest
one or two f-stops from the widest.
four stops from the widest

one or two f-stops from the widest.
pg. 63

A black-and-white film that must be processed as if it were a color film is:

advanced photo system film
instant film
chromogenic black-and-white film
infrared film

chromogenic black-and-white film
pg. 78

Assuming that a correct exposure will be made of a particular scene using a film speed of ISO 200, an aperture of f/2.8, and a shutter speed of 1/60 sec, a correct exposure will also be made of the same scene using which of the following combinations should the film speed be changed to ISO 400?

f/2.8 and 1/125 sec
f/2.8 and Tri-X
f/2.8 and 1/30 sec
DIN 24 and 1/60 sec

f/2.8 and 1/125 sec
pg. 68

To make an exposure with an incident-light meter, it is usually pointed toward the _______.

subject
camera
north
the darkest shadow detail in the scene.

camera

The current term to describe a sensor or film's sensitivity to light is _____.

ISO
ASA
DIN
EI

ISO

Which of the following black and white films would produce an image in which the sky would be very dark, green foliage would be unexpectedly light, and details would be diffused by halation?

instant
high-contrast
infrared
panchromatic

Infrared

Correction filters are used to:

absorb all colors equally
shoot without a lens
protect the lens
adjust for the response of film

adjust for the response of film
pg. 88

Correction filters are used to:

absorb all colors equally
shoot without a lens
protect the lens
adjust for the response of film

adjust for the response of film
pg. 88

Which of the following filters is recommended for outdoor portraits because it will darken a blue sky without making skin tones appear too light?

yellowish green
yellow
blue
skylight

Yellowish Green

If the filter you are using has a factor of 4 you should increase exposure by:

1 stop
2 stops
0 stops
4 stops

2 stops
pg. 88

The three essential solutions used in the processing of black-and-white film are:

developer, fixer, and hypo
developer, wetting agent, stop bath
developer, stop bath, and a washing agent
developer, stop bath, fixer

developer, stop bath, fixer

Mixed developers should be stored in:

boxes at a temperature of around 80 degrees F.
dark-colored bottles at a temperature of around 50 degrees F.
dark-colored bottles at a temperature of around 70 degrees F.
clear bottles at a temperature of around 80 degrees F.

dark-colored bottles at a temperature of around 70 degrees F.
pg. 97

The instructions for mixing a developer from concentrate call for a ratio of 1:3, which means you are to use:

1 part wetting agent to 3 parts developer
1 part developer to 3 parts water
1 part water to 3 parts developer
1 part developer to 3 parts washing aid

1 part developer to 3 parts water

The entire cover of the developing tank may be removed:

immediately after the stop bath has been added to the tank
after pouring the developer into the tank
when fixing is complete
until the film is dry

when fixing is complete

The key ingredient in any developer is:

sodium carbonate
a reducing agent
sodium thiosulfate
silver bromide

a reducing agent

Changing the development time has little effect on:

contrast in the negative
density in the negative
shadow areas in the print
highlight areas in the print

shadow areas in the print
pg. 108

Which of the following statements is generally true?

A thin negative is likely to be grainier.
Negatives that are thin were probably overexposed.
A dense negative will require a longer printing time.
A dense negative will have more density in the shadow areas than in the highlights.

A dense negative will require a longer printing time

The amount of silver built up in the negative overall is called___.

overexposure
density
oxidation
contrast

density

If your negatives routinely are too contrasty, you should:

decrease your film developing time.
use a high-contrast filter
use a high-contrast paper
increase film development time

decrease your film developing time.

Which of the following statements is true about push processing?

Push processing overexposes the film.
Push processing may be used with film that has been underexposed.
Push processing underdevelops the film.
Push processing decreases contrast.

Push processing may be used with film that has been underexposed.
pg. 108

A film that grows dark after time is likely to result from:

insufficient reducing agents in the fixer
using exhausted fix
too much time in the fixer
hydroquinone in the fixer

using exhausted fix.
pg. 107

The grade of paper that will produce a print with the greatest contrast is:

grade 1
grade 10
grade 4
grade 6

Grade 6

To achieve an image that reveals the greatest detail use:

slightly-textured paper
rough-textured paper
matte-finish paper
smooth-surfaced paper

smooth-surfaced paper
pg. 117

Which of the following statements is not true?

The contrast in glossy paper appears greater than that of matte paper.
The dark areas of prints made on glossy paper do not appear as black as those made on matte paper.
Grain is more evident in glossy paper prints than in matte paper prints.
The tonal range in glossy paper is greater than that of matte paper.

The dark areas of prints made on glossy paper do not appear as black as those made on matte paper.
pg. 117

Which of the following is not a common pre-cut size for paper?

20" x 24"
11" x 17"
8" x 10"
16" x 20"

11" x 17"

Latitude refers to:

the common widths for precut papers
the various color sensitvity of different papers
the amount that exposure time can vary from the optimum and still produce an acceptable print
the range from white to various off-white tones available as base tones in papers

the amount that exposure time can vary from the optimum and still produce an acceptable print.
pg. 117

If the focal length of the enlarger lens is too long for the negative:

the printed image will be magnified very little
the printed image may appear vignetted
the corners of the printed image will appear too light
the corners of the printed image will be out of focus

the printed image will be magnified very little.
pg. 114

To take full advantage of variable-contrast papers you will need a set of variable-contrast filters or:

a focusing magnifier
an enlarger with built-in filtration
an enlarger with a condenser
an enlarger with a focusing control

an enlarger with built-in filtration

A technique used to selectively add exposure to specific areas of a print is called:

burning
flashing
split filtering
dodging

burning

A technique used to selectively hold back exposure from certain areas of a print is called:

agitation
flashing
burning-in
dodging

dodging

A chemical bath that alters the developed silver in a print and changes the color or tone of the print is called a:

stop bath
developer
washing aid
toner

Toner

Which of the following factors is not likely to affect contrast in a print?

the surface finish of the paper used
the type of enlarger used
the type of stop bath used
the type of developer used

the type of stop bath used.
pg. 130

For the subtractive process of color mixing the color primaries are:

red, yellow, and cyan
yellow, cyan, and magenta
yellow, blue, and magenta
green, red, and blue

yellow, cyan, and magenta

Color systems divide all colors into which three measurements?

Hue, luminance, and saturation
dynamic Range, subject brightness range, and contrast
Hue, color, and value
Transparency, negative, and instant

Hue, luminance, and saturation

Which of the following colors has the highest color temperature on the Kelvin scale?

blue
green
red
black

blue
pg. 143

3200K film is color balanced for:

a flood lamp
a strobe
daylight

a flood lamp

A filter that absorbs equal quantities of all colors of light is a(n):

ultraviolet
skylight
amber
neutral density

neutral density
pg. 148

Digital Cameras set a white balance of ______ for daylight; film for use in daylight is balanced for 5500K

1900K
3200
2800K
5200K

5200K

The greatest contrast between colors is most likely to be apparent:

after sunset
at sunset
at sunrise
at noon

at noon

Cyan is composed of equal parts of:

green and yellow
green and blue
magenta and green
magenta and blue

green and blue
pg. 140

A print made from a color negative that looks too red is corrected by:

adding magenta
adding yellow and magenta
subtracting yellow and magenta
adding yellow

adding yellow and magenta

When making color prints from transparencies:

it is recommended that you begin printing using a fully exposed transparency with saturated colors and high contrast
it is generally not necessary to make a test print
it is recommended that you begin printing using a fully exposed transparency with saturated colors and low to normal contrast
it is necessary to use different equipment than that used for printing from negatives

it is recommended that you begin printing using a fully exposed transparency with saturated colors and low to normal contrast

Which of the following terms describes the importing of your captured images from a camera into a computer so that you can digitally manipulate them?

Bit depth
downloading
archiving
workflow

downloading

Question 2.
The smallest unit of digital information is a ___.

byte
pixel
CCD
bit

bit

A histogram shows the____ of all the pixels in an image.

brightness levels
psd
megabytes
Color profiles

brightness levels

Which of the following conditions will produce an inkjet print of good quality?

100 pixels per inch
4.2 megabytes
1.4 megapixels
300 pixels per inch

300 pixels per inch

Resolution refers to:

the number of pixels per unit of length in an image
The saturation of colors in an image.
how many colors are recorded in each pixel.
the amount of memory needed to store an image

the number of pixels per unit of length in an image
pg. 165

Bit depth refers to:

the number of pixels per inch
the capacity of a memory card
the total number of pixels in an image
the amount of information contained in each pixel

the amount of information contained in each pixel

The technical quality of a digital image is determined by the _____ and the _____.

Posterization and plug-ins
time / temperature
Monitor / histogram
number of pixels/ number of possible values each pixel can hold.

number of pixels/ number of possible values each pixel can hold

When discussing bit depth, eight bits per pixel gives ___.

one gigabyte
two values
256 tones
approximately sixteen million colors

256 tones

A(n) ____is an in-camera, removable storage device that saves images recorded by a digital camera.

scanner
memory card
aperture
film recorder

memory card

Which of the following devices is not used for file storage?

The hard drive.
A zip disk.
A flatbed scanner.
A compact disk.

A flatbed scanner.

To produce a final print of photographic quality inkjet print, you will want to digitize your image at:

300 PPI
150 PPI
72 PPI
200 DPI

300 PPI

The dynamic range of a good scanner should be at least:

24 bits per pixel
2700 ppi
4.2
2.5

24 bits per pixel
pg. 168

What image adjustment tool uses a histogram display to alter an image?

layers
curves
variations
levels

levels

Photoshop's command for a simple way to start using color balance is:

Variations
Quick mask
Selection
Curves

variations
pg. 184

When starting to edit, the first step is to ___.

Adjust the color balance
Set the black and white points
Calibrate your hard drive
Make a duplicate of the original file

Make a duplicate of the original file

Whenever another image is copied or moved into a file, Photoshop automatically creates:

A selection
An update
A new layer
A new file

A new layer

Instead of permanently altering your image when adjusting for color and value, what should you do?

You should use the quick mask mode.
You should use a text layer.
You should use the magic wand.
You should use an adjustment layer.

You should use an adjustment layer.
pg. 189

The magic wand tool

repairs the image
darkens the image
magnifies the image
is used for selecting portions of your image

is used for selecting portions of your image.
pg. 248

The simplest way to convert a color photo to black and white is to select:

Layers>Duplicate Layer
Image>Mode>Grayscale
Image>Adjustments>Variations
Filter>Sharpen>Unsharp Mask

Image>Mode>Grayscale

When using the unsharp mask, which of the following choices will not affect you're sharpening?

Radius
Threshold
Amount
Hue

Hue

The Photoshop tool that lets you select an area of any size or shape by drawing around it freehand is the:

Curve
Layer
Blend
Lasso

Lasso

The shape of a curve indicates

hue
Detail
contrast
Input

contrast

When adjusting an image with levels, if you want to make any color neutral quickly, what would you do?

Drag the black point slider to the right.
Click the auto button.
Click with the neutral-point dropper on your selected color.
It is not possible to quickly change a color to neutral from the levels adjustment dialog box.

Click with the neutral-point dropper on your selected color.
pg. 185

Dye-based inks are more vibrant than pigment-based inks, but unfortunately they have one important flaw when compared with pigment-based inks. What is it?

Profiles are not created for dye-based inks.
They are more expensive.
They fade more quickly.
They cannot be used on glossy paper.

They fade more quickly

What is the term that describes human's change in perception of a color under different light sources?

Color management
Color balance
metamerism
Kelvin temperature

metamerism

If your print will be viewed mostly under window light, what is the suggested Kelvin temperature of the lights you should use to evaluate your print?

3200K
1900K
2800K
5000K

5000K
pg. 202

What is the name of the technique used to make a monitor look like what you will see on your print?

RIP
Soft proofing
Monitor profiling
Constrain proportions

Soft proofing

The greatest tonal range from black to white is achievable on which of the following papers?

Glossy paper
Matte paper
Semi-gloss paper
Uncoated paper

Glossy paper
pg. 203

Which of the following specialty papers is not available for printing on an inkjet printer?

Refrigerator magnet paper
Metallic surface paper
Adhesive-backed paper
Fur-covered paper

Fur-covered paper
pg. 203

Most inkjet printers intended for photographic printing include light and dark inks of all colors except one. Which color ink is usually available in only one density?

black
cyan
yellow
magenta

yellow

Which of the following image editing changes would not be ethically acceptable for an image published in a photojournalistic context?

Remove a distracting telephone pole.
Retouch with the healing brush tool.
Adjust the image luminosity with levels.
Adjust the image color balance with curves.

Remove a distracting telephone pole

What file size image is suggested for displaying on a web site?

30 kilobytes
30 megabytes
30 gigabytes
3 kilobytes

30 kilobytes
pg. 208

When addressing print quality and resolution, which of the following actions is not recommended?

Changing the file to 8 bit mode.
Upsampling a file to 300ppi
Flattening your print.
Downsampling a file to 300ppi

Upsampling a file to 300ppi

What is the name of a stored file that lets your computer translate the color numbers of each pixel into a real color that you see?

driver
JPEG
profile
Stitching

profile
pg. 202

Which of the following devices is not good to use as a backup storage device?

Optical disk storage
Memory Cards
External tape drives
External Hard Drives

Memory Cards
pg. 212

What storage device can hold approximately the most data at this moment?

External Hard Drives
CD
DVD
Digital Camera Memory Cards

External Hard Drives

A digital image consists of data, so information about it is called ___ .

Metadata
ratings
keywords
browsers

Metadata

Digital cameras save capture information in an internal data block, separate from the image's pixel data in a standard format called:

Exif
icon
composite
GPS

Exif
pg. 213

When naming your photographs to facilitate retrieval, what is the best type of name to use?

The original camera file number as downloaded from your memory card.
Chronological order.
Image size
Subject of the photograph

Chronological order

Which of the following items is not contained in a correctly processed black and white negative?

silver
Plastic
gelatin
fix

fix

Inkjet prints made on glossy coated surfaces should be allowed to outgas for how long before storing in impermeable plastic or framing?

A few days
Ten minutes
One year in the dark
One hour in bright sunlight

A few days

Traditional silver prints are safest if stored in plastic sleeves except those made of:

polyester
polyvinyl chloride
polyethylene
polypropylene

polyvinyl chloride

Which of the following conditions would help preserve stored photographs or negatives?

Keeping them in relative humidity between 50%-70%
Keeping them in the dark.
A room lit by fluorescent light
Keeping them in the original paper box.

Keeping them in the dark

When spotting a print you should first:

spot the darker areas first
clean the print thoroughly with Spotone
spot the lighter areas first
wet the print

spot the darker areas first
pg. 220

A method typically used to remove a small dark blemish on a print by scraping it off with a blade is called:

spotting
photo editing
etching
local reduction

etching

Archival-quality mat board is also referred to as:

2- ply board
museum board
mount board
4-ply board

museum board
pg. 221

A method of mounting without a border is called:

overmatting
tack mounting
bleed mounting
spotting

bleed mounting
pg. 221

When tacking the mounting tissue to the reverse of the print:

move the tacking iron from the center of the print to the sides
move the tacking iron from the sides of the print to the center
move the tacking iron from the center of the print to the corners
move the tacking iron from a corner of the print to the center

move the tacking iron from the center of the print to the sides

A silver print may be lightened in specific areas after processing with ____.

special retouching pencils
Farmer's Reducer
Spotone
Selenium toner

Farmer's Reducer
pg. 220

A technique used to correct imperfections such as scratches and dust marks on finished prints is called:

overmatting
dry mounting
local reduction
spotting

spotting

A method of permanently adhering a photograph to a presentation board is called:

archival mounting
spotting
dry mounting
overmatting

dry mounting

The thickness of mat board is usually rated in terms of:

inches
millimeters
rag
ply

ply

Which of the following is not usually a method of attaching the print to a backing board in overmatting?

corner hinge
folded hinge
pendant hinge
dry mounting

dry mounting

When people talk about "quality" of light they are usually referring to:

back lighting
its direction
artificial light
its degree of diffusion

its degree of diffusion

A spotlight is an example of:

direct light
diffused light
soft light
available light

direct light
pg. 230

When using manual exposure for bounced flash, you must compensate for the extra distance the flash light travels by: ____.

using the distance from the flash to the reflecting surface to the subject when estimating distance
changing the flash calculator dial to a higher ISO number than the film or sensor speed you are using
changing your shutter speed
using a flash slave unit

using the distance from the flash to the reflecting surface to the subject when estimating distance

Which of the following is not a commonly used type of flash?

Built-in
Handle mount
photoflood
Hot shoe

photoflood

The functioning of barn doors is most similar to that of:

a tent
a snoot
an umbrella reflector
a flag

a flag

Which of the following is an example of a light-supporting device?

a gel
a boom
a filter holder
an umbrella reflector

a boom

To add fill light you would not use:

a reflector
a black reflector
a flash
a flood light

a black reflector

Which of the following would not be a setting on, or reading derived from, a manually-controlled flash unit calculator dial?

watt-seconds
distance to subject
film speed
f-stop

watt-seconds

To avoid distracting reflections, glassware is normally lighted:

with the key light directly in front of it
with a flash
from behind
from the side

from behind

An image created in the darkroom without a camera is called a(n):

Sabattier print
emulsion transfer
photogram
image transfer

photogram
pg. 276

A two-part work of art is called a(n):

image transfer
Kodachrome
diptych
triptych

diptych

To insure even lighting over the surface of the copy:

position a light to either side of the copy
position a single light in front of the copy
use a bowl reflector
bounce light from above the copy

position a light to either side of the copy
pg. 284

Close-up photography may include the use of all but one of the following devices:

Extension tube or bellows
Supplementary lens
Digital projector
Zoom lens with a macro feature.

Digital projector

A digitally enlarged negative at the same size as the final print may be used with which of the following alternative processes?

cyanotype printing
palladium printing
platinum printing
image transfers

image transfers

Image transfers are made with:

transparency film
Kodalith Ortho film
light-sensitive iron salts
Polaroid film

Polaroid film

Mackie lines are characteristic of:

line copy
cyanotypes
Sabattier prints
platinum prints

Sabattier prints

When copying an image behind glass you would consider using a black card with a hole cut in it in front of the camera or:

a reflected-light meter
a copy stand
an incident-light meter
a polarizing filter

a polarizing filter

A type of alternative process that involves processing print film with slide developers is called:

cross processing
platinum printing
image transfers
push processing

cross processing

To find the f-stop when using a pinhole camera you would:

divide the diameter of the pinhole in inches into the focal length in inches
divide the focal length in millimeters into the diameter of the pinhole in inches
divide the focal length in millimeters into the diameter of the pinhole in millimeters
divide the diameter of the pinhole in inches into the focal length in millimeters

divide the diameter of the pinhole in inches into the focal length in inches
pg. 280

To avoid distortion when making a copy you should make certain that the copy:

has been metered at the corners and in the center
and the camera are at a 45 degree angle to each other
is lit at a 45 degree angle
and the camera are parallel to each other

and the camera are parallel to each other
pg. 284

Which of the following is not a common large-format film size?

8 1/2 x 11 inches
4 x 5 inches
8 x 10 inches
5 x 7 inches

8 1/2 x 11 inches
pg. 287

Which of the following terms does not describe a view-camera movement?

shift
tilt
roll
swing

roll
pg. 288

The image on a view camera may be seen on the:

camera back
lens board
bellows
ground glass

ground glass
pg. 289

If you want to adjust a view camera so that a specific plane of the subject is in focus, what theory would you apply?

Inverse square law
Scheimpflug principle
Reciprocity law
Hyperfocal distance

Scheimpflug principle
pg. 299

Which of the following movements is most likely to change the focus?

tilting the back of the camera
shifting the back of the camera
tilting the front of the camera
shifting the front of the camera

tilting the front of the camera
pg. 294

Which of the following movements most changes the apparent shape of objects viewed?

tilting the back of the camera
shifting the back of the camera
tilting the front of the camera
shifting the front of the camera

tilting the back of the camera
pg. 295

To make sure that there is not even a slight tilt or swing of the lens or camera back that might change focus, what is one of the first things you must do when taking a picture with a view camera?

Use the rise and fall movements to adjust the framing.
Zero the camera movements
Set your shutter speed.
Attach the view camera to a tripod.

Zero the camera movements
pg. 324

Which of the following is not considered a disadvantage of using a view camera?

A view camera has few automatic features
A view camera can change the shape of the subject
A view camera has to be used with a tripod
A view camera requires that you view the subject upside down and backward

A view camera can change the shape of the subject
pg. 287

To control the horizontal placement of a subject within the frame without affecting any other aspect of the scene you would most likely employ:

swing
tilt
rise and fall
shift

shift
pg. 293

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