Praxis ii 0330

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Praxis ii Speech Language Pathology test prep

7 Intrinsic Laryngeal Muscles

Cricothyroid, Cricoarytenoid(lateral), Cricoarytenoid(posterior), Arytenoid, Thyroarytenoid,Aryepiglottis, Thyroepiglottis

7 Extrinsic Laryngeal Muscles

Digastric, Stylohyoid,Mylohyoid,Geniohyoid,Hypoglossus, Genioglossus, Thropharyngeus

Laryngeal Cartliages

Thyroid,Cricoid,Epiglottis,Arytenoids(2),Corniculate(2), Cuneiform(2)

Aperiodic Sounds

whispered speech
vocal folds DO NOT vibrate during whispered speech

Otitis Media with Effusion (OME)

is when there is thick or sticky fluid behind the eardrum in the middle ear, with no infection

Hyperabduction

is a specific form of muscle tension, dysphonia, characterised by excessive abduction of the vocal cords. This means that the vocal folds are not able to come together or adduct sufficiently in order to produce voice.

Symptoms of Hyperabduction

weak breathy and or hoarse voice,decreased volume,excessive air escaping through the larynx during speech,phonation breaks,effortful phonation,vocal fatigue, short maximum phonation time

Hyperadduction

is a spcific form of muscle tension dysphonia characterised by excessive adduction or coming together of the vocal folds. Habitual use of a hyperadductive phonatory pattern can lead to the developement of vocal fold pathologies such as nodules or polyps

Glottal Fry

is an indicator of possible contact ulcers

Overshooting or undershooting of an action

indicative of cerebellar involvement

Using coughing or throat clearing

is an effective treatment to produce phonation in Aphonia

Blom-Singer or Panje Prothesis

shunt air from the trachea to the esophagus to allow patient to produce voice

Anoxic Encephalopathy

brain damage caused by lack of oxygen that leads to global impairments of memory

Perturbation

is a disturbance in the quality of the laryngeal tone, or fundamental frequency. Fundamental frequency=Fo

Williams Syndrome

delayed speech,developementally delayed,feeding problems,ADD,Learning disorders,Inward bend of little finger(clinlodactyly),mental retardation,very friendly,trusting strangers,fearing loud noises or physical contact and being interested in music, shorter than other members of the family,sunken chest,flat nasal bridge,long ridges on btwn nose and lip,prominent lips with open mouth,skin covering inner corner of the eye,missing teeth, enamel problems and widely spaced teeth

The effectiveness of tx can be best demonstrated by

Single-subject design

Medialization Thyroplasty

surgical procedure which moves the paralyzed vocal fold closer to the mid glottis to allow better compensation by the unaffected fold

Cohesive devices

are used to link sentences together in a clear and logical manner. synonyms,transition words, enumeration

Facilitation Process

exploit the available repertoire and incorporate new material in to the existing language system

Stroboscopy

is the best measure of viewing the vocal folds during phonation

Eustachian Tube Dysfunction

is nearly universal in cleft palate patients

A single prolonged exposure to loud noise will cause

tinnitus and temporary threshold shift in the higher frequencies

Hypoglossus

control over the fundamental frequency of laryngeal tone

Children with brain injuries

have greated problem managing their deficits

Reflexive vocalizations

cries, coughs, hiccups, which are related to the babys physical state

Canonical babbling

consonant-vowel combinations called canonical syllables begin to appear in a childs babbling(baaa, dadada, goo)

2 language acquisition views

Behaviorist Interpretation & Nativist Interpretation

Behaviorist Interpretation

stimulus-response-view of all behavior
classical conditioning explains word meaning acquisiton(new meanings to old stimuli)
Watsons research on Little Albert

Nativist Interpretation

Noam Chomsky most famous language nativist-child does not need to learn what al human languages have in common(UG);only needs to learn what is unique to his or her specific language
principles(innate) and parameters(acquired quickly)
Language acquisitions device(LAD)
innate ability to acquire language
The Nativist Perspective in Review-we have not ruled out the nativist basis contention, which is that human beings are born with an innate capacity for language.

Brown Stages

were identified by Roger Brown 1925-1997 and described in his classic book

Morphology

in linguistics, morphology is the branch of grammar devoted to the study of the structure or forms of words(the study of word structure)

Syntax

study the rules governing the combination of words to form sentences

Morpheme

is a unit of meaning. Unhappiest-equals 3 morphemes

Left Brain Functions

uses logic, detailed oriented,facts rule,words and language, present and past, math and science, can comprehend, knowing,acknowledges, order/pattern perception,knows object name, reality based, forms strategies, practical, safe

Right brain functions

uses feeling, "big picture"oriented, imagination rules,symbols and images, present and future, philosophy and religion, can "get it" believes, appreciates, spatial perception, knows objects function, fantasy based, presents possibilities, impetuous, risk taking

The Source-Filter Theory

describes speech production as a two stage process involving the generation of a sound source, with its own spectral shape and spectral fine structure,which is then shaped or filtered by the resonant properties of the vocal tract.

Waveform

is an image tat represents an audio signal or recording.It shows the changes in amplitude over a certain amount of time. The amplitude of the signal is measured on the y-axis(vertically) while time is measured on the x-axis(horizontally)

Formant

refers to peaks in the harmonic spectrum of complex sound

spec tro gram

a graphic or photographic representation of a spectrum

phoneme

is the smallest structural unit that distinguishes meaning in a language. are not the physical segments themselves but are cognitive abstractions or categorizations of them

phones

refer to the instance of phonemes in the actual utterances-physical segment

anaphora

using a pronoun or similar word instead of repeating a word used earlier

emotional prosody

is the expression of feelings using prosodic elements of speech. Charles Darwin

Linguistic Prosody

refers to intonation and vocal stress in speech

Common resonance disorders

hypernasality, hyponasality and nasal emission

Friedreichs ataxia

is an inherited disease that causes progressive damage to the nervous system resulting in symptoms ranging from gait disturbance and speech problems to heart disease

Ataxia

is a symptom of coordination problems-clumsy or awkward movements and unsteadiness and occurs in many different diseases and condtions.

Myasthenia Gravis

is a chronic autoimmune neuromuscular disease characterized by varying degrees of weakness of the skeletal voluntary muscles of the body. The name of myasthenia gravis which is Latin and Greek in origin, literally means "grave muscle weakness". Muscle weakness that increases during periods of activity and improves after periods of rest. Certain muscles such as those that control eye and eyelid movement, facial expression, chewing, talking, and swallowing are often, but not always involved in this disorder. muscles that control breathing and neck and limb movements may also be affected

Acoustic Reflex

is an involuntary muscle contraction that occurs in the middle ear of mannamls in response to high-intensity sound stimuli

olfactory 1

smell

optic 2

vision

oculomotor 3

eyelid and eyeball movement

trochlear 4

turns eye downward and laterally

trigeminal 5

chewing, face and mouth touch and pain

abducen 6

turns eye laterally

facial 7

facial expressions secretion of tears and saliva and taste

auditory 8

hearing equillibrium sensation

glossopharyngeal 9

taste/senses carotid blood pressure/

vagus 10

senses aortis blood pressure/slows heart rate/stimulates digestive organs/taste,motor intervention to the larynx and velum

spinal accessory 11

controls trapezius & sternocleidomastoid/controlls swallowing movements

hypoglossal 12

controls tongue movements

Speech Reception Threshold

is a basic component of an evaluation of hearing function. It is measured in decibles and corresponds to the intensity level at which spondaic words can be recognized approx 50% of the time

hispanic issues when speaking english

use multiple negation inappropriately

Flaccid Dysarthria

is most frequently associated with significant dysphagia

Chewing Technique

is used to reduce muscular tension in the laryngeal area

Facilitation process

is best described by exploitation of available repertoire and metalinguisteic activities-incorporating new materal into the total existing language system

The basic reason for using standardized or normative instruments for assessing language and speech function

a clients behavior is most usefully compared to what is normal for a person in that age range

The most reasonable standard to apply when judging whether a client has achieved generalization of a targeted skill

The client uses the targeted skill in the presence of stimulus conditions not present during the training process and in the absence of reinforcement

The most serious limitiation of employing imitation as an intervention strategy for children with a language impairment

it lacks communicative intention

Naturalistic Teaching

focuses on the successful production of utterances that are communicatively useful in context-establishing successful and useful communication

Conductive hearing loss

children with hx of otitis media are at risk of mild to moderate conductive hearing loss. They have difficulty perceiving and producing strident or high frequency consonants, such as siblilants.

Thermal Stimulation

helps trigger the swallow reflex

Goal for Layrngectomy patient

restoration of oral communication

Children dx with specific language impairments

are likely to exhibit the greatest deficits in production of sentences with appropriate inflectional morphology and syntax

A functional communication tx objective

client will use the phone to request info or assistance in 80% of the appropriate situations presented

Leading cause of neuroligical speech and language disorders in adults

CVA

5 yr old with mulitple speech path errors tx goal

delineate phonological processes in operation and address them through minimal contrast pairs

a correct response rate of 51 percent on a 2 choice picture pointing task would most likely indicate ...

a random pointing response

Stroboscopy

generally is the most efficient and effective instrumentation for viewing the vocal folds during phonation

A clinician who employs active listening

responds to both the content and the affect of a clients remarks

Why u dont use chronological age as a performance criterion for a child with Downs Syndrome

using chronological age would make the childs language disorders seem more pronounced(overidentify)

Athetosis-Cerebal Palsy

slow, arrhythmic, writhing and involuntary movements of the extremities

Apraxia of Speech

difficulty in the appropriate coordination of the motor movements required to produce well formed speech sounds.

Tx of Apraxia of Speech

auditory-visual stimulation,oral motor repetition,and phonetic placement

Independent Variable

manipulated or selected by the researcher to determine its effect on the dependent variable(ex. manipulating vocal loudness to see its effect on prosodic Fo and durational variables)

intermittent reinforcement

used when a behavior has already been acquired, a random ratio of tokens to correct responses creates an intermittent reinforcement schedule and is the most effective

Flaccid paralysis of the soft palate

referal for a construction of a palatal lift appliance is appropriate

Infant known to have a hearing loss

Parents are in the best position to provide consistent auditory stimulation and such stimulation is what the infant needs to develop awareness of sound

Naturalistic Contexts

everyday situations provide opportunities for the use of fuctional and meaningful linguistic forms

agent vs subject

whether something is an agent depends on semantics whereas whether something is a subject depends on syntax

Hearing loss in infants born with a cleft palate is usually related to what?

Eustachian tube dysfunction

word finding difficulties related to aphasia

tx to remediate these difficulties is appropriate

A single exposure to several hours to continous music with overall level of 100 db SPL will cause what

tinnitus and a temporary threshold shift in the high frequencies

Bilingual english spanish speech error

irregular verbs

linguistic approach

contrast alveoloar stops with velar stops in meaningful word pairs

For a test of expressive morphology and syntax for speakers of african american vernacular english, test item that would be considered LEAST biased against such speakers would be one requiring

agreement of personal pronouns with their antecedents in gender and number

Right Hemisphere traumatic brain injury

visuospatial disorgainzation,an inablitiy to initiate interactions,unilateral neglect,and lack of facial expression

In deciding wheter the child is developmentally non fluent or is stuttering, the SLP will determine

the nature and frequency of the childs repetitions

Interjudge reliability

is one whose results are replicable even if different people admininster the test

cricothyroid

control over the fundamental freq of the laryngeal tone

Posterior Cricoarytenoid

abducts the vocal folds

Lateral Cricoarytenoid

adducts the vocal folds

Hypoglossus

lowers the tongue

Sternocleidomasatoid

respiratory muscle

Cricothyroid

Muscle that has the greatest control over teh fundamental frequency of the laryngeal tone by lengthening or tensing the vocal folds

Manual depression of the larynx

will serve to lengthen the vocal folds, allowing them to vibrate at a lower frequency. ex effective in remediating a falsetto voice for an adult male with a severe bilateral hearing loss

Insufficient palatal closure

excessive nasality-speak while alternating opening and closing the nostrils

Ear Malformation

individuals diagnosed with having hemifacial microsomia are also most likely to have this

Developmental apraxia of speech

symptoms include-articulation characterised by groping, inconsistency, and errors of sound and syllable sequencing

Structured play to address short term goals

Toddlers and preschoolers respond better to games and play activities than structured exercises so use....

Hyperadduction of the vocal fold tx

have the client use light and gentle vocal fold contacts will help reduce tension and be effective

Consonant cluster reduction

is the most persistent of the normal developmental processes

Whispered speech

it is composed largely of aperiodic sounds

Syntactic Complexity

is determined by the number of transformational rules that are applied to a given sentence

Impaired attention and memory are symptoms

brain injury

Cognitive therapy for stuttering

focuses on changing faulty beliefs about self-control and the perceived benefits of stuttering

Wernickes Aphasia

include deficits related to the ability to recognize the adequacy of ones verbal production

Glottal fry is a symptom of

contact ulcers

Hoarse voice,hard glottal attacks,lowering of pitch

Vocal Nodules

Acute laryngitis

a person may lose the use of the voice and may even become aphonic during this episode

Ventricular Phonation

use of false vocal cords,a rought type of phonation when used with true vocal cords can reslut in diplophonia

spastic dysphonia

aphonic breaks due to sudden over adduction or underadduction of the vocal folds

Tx of aphonia

developement of phonation thru coughing or throat clearing

Flaccid dysarthria

child is likely to have chewing, eating and swallowing issues with this

Cleft palate can be caused by

genetic factors interacting with environmental factors

Anoxic encephalopathy

brain deprived from oxygen-memory issues

valleculae

are depressions that lie lateral to the median epiglottal folds

ABAB or ABA

shows changes when intervention is applied.Single subject design using ABAB or ABA design is the best method to determine whether the intervention has succeeded

Standardized test

reveal how well a client performs compared to a specific population

a SOAP, subjective objective assessment plan

explains a desired goal and specific outcomes in the overall effects of intervention

Auditory training

interpretation of auditory input and would thus teach a client to discriminate speech sounds

repeated episodes of otitis media with intermittent hearing loss

effects overall language development

following medialization throplasty

need to produce hard glottal attack

Browns morphemes are acquired

by children in an order that is determined by their semantic and syntactic complexity

aphonia

loss of voice, inability to speak

dysphonia

phonation disorder/dysphonic voice can be hoarse or weak, or excessively breathy, harsh, or rough, but some kind of phonation is still possible/

Dysarthria

is a motor speech disorder resulting from neurological injury, characterized by poor articulation

Dysarthric speech

due to some disorder in the nervous system, which in turn hinders control over, for example, the tongue, throat, lips or lungs. Swallowing problems (dysphagia) are often present.

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