AP World History Chapter 9: Civilization in Eastern Europe: Byzantium and Orthodox Europe

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15 terms

icons

images of religious figures that became objects of veneration within Christianity of the Byzantine Empire; particularly prevalent in Eastern monasticism

Vladimir I

Ruler of Russian kingdom of Kiev from 980 to 1050; converted kingdom to Christianity

Greek Fire

Byzantine weapon consisting of mixture of chemicals that ignited when exposed to water; utilized to drive back the Arab fleets that attacked Constantinople

Kiev

Trade city in southern Russia established by Scandinavian traders in 9th century; became focal point for kingdom of Russia that flourished to 12th century

Hagia Sophia

New church constructed in Constantinople during reign of Justinian

iconoclasm

Religious controversy within the Byzantine Empire in the 8th century; emperor attempted to suppress veneration of icons; literary 'breaking of images'; after long struggle, icon veneration was restored

Rurik

legendary Scandinavian, regarded as founder of the first kingdom of Russia based in Kiev in 855 c.e

Tatars

Mongols; captured Russian cities and largely destroyed Kievan state in 1236; left Russian Orthodoxy and aristocracy intact

Belisarius

ONe of Justinian's most important military commanders during period of reconquest of western Europe; commanded in north Africa and Italy

boyars

Russian aristocrats; possessed less political power than did their counterparts in western Europe

Cyril

Along with Methodius, missionary sent by Byzantine government to eastern Europe and the Balkans; converted southern Russia and Balkans to Orthodox Christianity; responsible for creation of written script fr Slavic known as Cyrillic

Methodius

Along with Cyril, missionary sent by Byzantine government to eastern Europe and the Balkans; converted southern Russia and Balkans to Orthodox Christianity; responsible for creation of written script fr Slavic known as Cyrillic

Yaroslav

Last of great Kievan monarchs; issued legal codification based on formal codes developed in Byzantium

Russian Orthodoxy

Russian form of Christianity imported from Byzantine Empire and combined with local religion; king characteristically controlled major appointments

Bulgaria

Slavic kingdom established in northern portions of Balkan peninsula; constant sourve of pressure on Byzantine Empire; defeated by Emperor Basil II in 1014

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