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African Diaspora

Africans in servitude were scattered throughout the world from the Americas, Europe and the Middle East. Wherever Africans went, they brought their culture with them.

Kongo Kingdom

The kingdom was located in central Africa, along the Congo River. It became a strong state by the 1400s.

Slave Trade (Atlantic)

The European usage of Africans slaves stemmed from a lack of labor in the Americas and the need for workers in the sugar plantations in the Caribbean, the silver mines in South America and cash crop plantations in North America.

Slavery (in Africa)

Africans took and sold their fellow Africans in the interior of the continent to Europeans who hung out on the coast in heavily fortified "slave" forts.

Christianity, gold, ivory and slaves

When the Portuguese showed up towards the end of the 15th-century, the Kongo took on ... while the Europeans bought up ..., ... and ... .

slave trade, sugar plantations

While the Kongo tried to get the Portuguese to end the ..., the Europeans, held down by the ... in the Americas, refused. The Portuguese, in the subsequent war, took out Kongo easily.

11 million, outlawed

It absorbed some ... Africans before most European countries ... the practice by the 19th-century.

men

Since most captives were ..., the trade destroyed families though it did not diminish the continent's population.

El Mina, in the midst of the forest gold-producing area of West Africa (Ghana, Benin, Côte D'Ivoire, etc.).

What was the most important Portuguese fort along the African west coast?

Collection points in the interior where the Portuguese and Portuguese-African mulattos made trade contacts with the interior peoples.

What were the importance of lançados?

Garrisons and forts, most with local support and approval, up and down the west coast of Africa.

What was the scope of Portuguese settlements along the western and eastern coast of Africa?

The Muslim slave traders tended to focus on women to be used as concubines
The Atlantic slave trade focused on men to do heavy and dangerous labor in American mines and fields.

What was the difference between the slave trade conducted by Europeans and that controlled by Muslims?

They picked up in new crops as the Atlantic slave trade developed the proliferation of maize and cassava (manioc).

What was the impact of the slave trade on African dietary life?

Many historians have debated how profitable the slave trade was towards growing the economic powerhouses of industrial Europe and North America.

What brings the profitability of the slave trade for Europeans into doubt?

Slaves carried to the Americas; sugar, tobacco and other goods were sent to Europe; European goods were sent to the African coast - and the cycle continued.

What was the components of the triangular trade?

Dependence on European economies and this retarded their own economic growth.

Linked to an increasingly integrated world economy.

How did the slave trade impact the African economies?

By declaring that Africa had its own slaves but the Atlantic trade far surpassed the smaller-scale existing slave trade done between the tribes and within the Trans-Sahara

What was the European justification for taking African slaves?

Slavery was considered a legitimate fate for non-believers but illegal for fellow Muslims

What was the limitation for Muslims in taking slaves?

As the military slowly took over the societies, the taking and selling of captives grew in frequency.

How did the Moroccan destruction of Songhay change the course of African slavery?

Coastal kingdoms began to maneuver for greater control of trade as the interior began to direct their efforts towards the Europeans.

How did the slave trade impact the power and rule of both coastal kingdoms and interior kingdoms?

They come to the attention of the Dutch, who saw them as a real threat.

What limited the power of the Asante in West Africa?

Leaders grew more autocratic, more absolute in their power.

What was responsible for the change of leadership among the Dahomey kingdom as well as other African kingdoms?

Dealt with Portuguese and Ottoman Turks in their trade of ivory, gold and slaves

What were the major products that Swahili trading ports dealt in?

Consisted of a conglomeration of Islamic ruling families and "pagan" kingdoms that practiced animism.

What was the nature of Islamic changes within the northern savannah Muslim kingdoms?

As a trading and re-supply station for ships going to Asia but soon dealt heavily with slaves from Asia and later, Africa.

How did the Dutch use their port on the Cape of Good Hope?

As the Boers continued to move northward and the Bantu southward

What led to the increase tension between the Afrikaners and native tribes like Zulu and Khoikhoi?

Helped the Boers clear the farmland of natives but had difficulty limiting Boer settlements and their use of Africans as labor.

How did the southern African colony upon the takeover by the British?

Initiated reforms in military organization and in the process, altered the social scene as his soldiers were housed in their own villages.

What was the impact of the leadership of Shaka?

The series of wars for the purpose of expansion.

What was the consequence of the mfecane?

The British

Who was responsible for the downfall of the Zulu?

The voyage from Africa and the Americas.
Conditions were horrible and in some cases, Africans took matters into their own hands by committing suicide or rising up in mutiny.

What is the definition and characteristics of the Middle Passage?

Farmers first tried to use indentured servants but their unreliability led to the use of forced labor.

In North America, what type of labor was first used before switching to slaves?

A distinction was made between African-born (saltwater) and American-born (Creole) slaves.
A distinct hierarchy developed with free whites at the top, free people of color in the center and slaves at the bottom.

What was the hierarchy and divisions of most American societies and slave communities?

Had a massive African population but a couple of things made the colony more multifarious including a diverse economy and a tradition of manumitting and the popular practice of miscegenation.

What made Brazil unique among the American societies with African slaves?

The owners did not have to depend on a constant flux of slaves because their slave population was self-sustaining and natural population growth created a slave class increasingly disconnected to its African roots.

What made the North American British colonies different with their slave population?

Undermined the development of families.
Those families that were created were done so outside the authority of the dominant religion.

What was the cultural impact of the lack of women in American societies?

Religious concepts and tenets that originated from Africa loss some ground in the new land of the slaves.

What were the consequences of the colliding of African and Christian faiths?

There are several examples of uprisings led by African Muslims against whites and other non-Muslims.
Rebellions and uprisings were a common occurrence in the regions where slaves were held.

How did African Muslims differ from other slaves in their response to a dominant Christian faith?

There were many factors that led to the end of the Atlantic slave trade: the Enlightenment, revolutions, Christian revivalism and the Industrial Revolution.

In what forms did the beginnings of the abolitionist movements take?

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