Squamous cell carcinoma of breast
Requirement for diagnosis
No skin thickening
No other breast malignancy present
Path shows squamous cells
US: Hypoechoic. Possible central cystic component -necrosis?
Usually large at presentation (5 cm)
2/3 or so are cystic.
No specific appearance, but cystic component and vascularity can be seen on US.
Well defined mass on mammo
Metastatic disease and
Scc is rare
Mass with cystic and solid component in breast
SCC is rare.
Diabetic fibrous mastopathy
Benign breast disorder found in patients with Type I Diabetes Mellitus, which can mimic malignancy both clinically and radiographically
Typical patient is young female with a non-tender, firm, mobile, palpable mass. Involvement can also be multifocal or bilateral.
DM usually longstanding, 20 years or more.
Etiology is a secondary immune reaction to accumulation of abnormal matric and proteins resulting in fibrosis
Very dense tissue possibly asymmetric
Hypo-echoic lesion with irregular borders and increased posterior acoustic shadowing, and simulates a malignancy. Also can be circumscribed or hypo-echoic without shadowing.
Variable depending on fibrous and water content
Recurrence common, but no associated risk of cancer.
Rare chest wall musculature variant-unknown function.
Flame-shaped medial density seen on CC mammogram, no corresponding abnormality of MLO view.
1-2 cm in size
Usually smooth contour
Most important differential to rule out is a medially-located mass, which may also hide on MLO view if it's not taken well.
American CA Society recommendations for mamma
Women over 40 yearly
In 20s and 30s clinical exam every 2-3 years
OVer 40, yearly clinical exam
Regulates all mammo faciilities.
All must be approved, most by FDA but some states are licenced to approve their own.
Regulates : Training for techs and physicians, reporting, enforcement by FDA, equipment, processing, QC and outcomes data.
There are yearly inspections
Falcification is punishable by prison time.
Lifetime CA risk from mammo
Lifetime risk in average pt is 1:100k, for >65 1:5mil
Chace of finding CA in ave pt is 1:3500, over 65 is 1:1000
Therefore benefit to risk ratio in average pt is 25:1, and in >65, it is 5K:1
Mammo technical considerations
kVp is 24-32 for Mo target and 26-35 for Rh or W. Low kVp needed for increased contrast in body and increased absorption in phosphor
For comressed 5 cm breast, need about 150 mAs for the exam. Machine should be able to provide 5-300 mAs to accomodate different size and density of breast
All have 1/2 v al layer equal to kVp/100 plus .03-.12 in mm of Al (for an Mo-Mo system).
Focal spot is 0.3 mm for nl views, 0.1 mm for mag providing resolution of 11 lp/mm and 13 lp/mm respectively.
Source to image distance is 55 cm for mag views.
Has to have both 18x24 and 42x30 plates.
Grid ratio 3.5-5:1
Colimation is to the plate, not breast contour.
The paddle must have at least 3 cm lip and provide 25-45 lb of pressure for at least a minute.
MQSA mandated QA
Must monitor repeat rate and reason for it
Muast have record keeping
A designated QA person
Daily: Darkroom cleanliness, processor QC.
Weekly: Screen cleanliness, viewbox cleanliness, phantom (must see at least 4 fibers, 3 speck groups and 3 masses)
Quarterly: repeat analysis, fixer retention
6 mths: Darkroom fog, screen-film contact, compression
Annual: physicist analysis
Breast CA risks
Fem and age by for the most imortant
Personal hist of Br CA
1st deg rel with Br or Ov CA, esp if young or bilateral
Early menarche or late menopause
Nulliparous or first after 30
Atypical ductal hyperplasia (4-5 x over gen population)
BRCA 1 (85% Br, 63% ov by age 70) or BRCA (lower, and mostly breast)
Early radiation exposure
Lobular carcinoma in situ (27-30% over 10 yers)
Le-Fraumeni, Cawden and ataxia-telangiectasia
Indicated Br edema causing the skin to rise around the tethered hair follicles.
It is nonspecific, occuring iwth inflammatory CA, matitis, lymph node obstruction
Basic gland anatomy
The lactiferous duct leads to excretory ducts, then interlobular ducts and teminral ducts which finally end in the acini.
THere are 15-20 lobes per duct.
Most glandular tussue is in the upper outer quadrant.
Breast density lexicon
Fatty- <25% gland
Scattered fibrogralndular - 25-50%
Heterogeneously dense - 50-75%
Dense - >75%
Nl course is for density to decrease with age.
Dnesity can increase with pregnancy and lactaion, or exogenous hormone therapy. Otherwise interval increase in density is always abnormal.
Common findings of Br. CA
Pleomorphic- CA or benign fat necrosis
Spiculated mass - CA, post op scar, fat necrosis
Round mass - Cyst, Fibroadenoma, CA, papilloma, mets
Architectural distortion - Post-op scar, CA
Developing density - CA, hormone effect, focal fibrosis
Asymmetry (focal or global) - normal in 3%, CA (esp if new, palpable, suspected CA)
Br Edema - Unilateral: mastitis, CA
Br Edema -bilateral: Systematic(liver dis, renal failure, CHF)
Lymphadenopathy - unilateral: Mastitis, CA
Lymphadenopathy - bilateral: systemic (collagen vasc., lymphoma, leukemia, infection,
0 - incomplete. For screeners requiring recall or diagnostics that need mor images.
1,2 - negative and benign, neither requiring further action
3 - probably benign. Needs 6 month f/u
4 - suspicious, needs biopsy. categories a,b and C represent low, intermediate and moderate suspicion.
5 - highly suspicious >95% probability of CA
6 - known CA, pt is getting imaging prior to some procedure etc. after biopsy proven diagnosis.
Is done on a non-symptomatic patient. Includes CC and MLO views most commonly
Is done on a symptomatic pt or pt with abnormal results on a prior screening mammo. Includes additional views for imaging a suspicious finding
Spot compression with and without mag
Releating of same views as before
XCCL and cleopatra views.
Breast CA is almost invariably in glandular parenchyma, so calcifications in skin, muscle, nipple (except paget's) is almost invariably benign.
Clustered calcs are more suspicioud than scattered.
When reporting: report size of cluster, location, shape of cluster, characteristics of the worst looking calc, birads, associated findings (mass, distortion, adenopathy, skin retraction, nipple retraction, skin thickening, trabecular thickening)
Indetermintae, tiny, flake shaped. Too small to characterize further. On screening, corelates to DCIS in about 25-48% of cases. If less than 5 calcifications, rarely malignant.
Fine linear or fine branching
Linear branching pleomorphic calcs that represent duct casts. Can be needlelike or dot dash in appearance. X, Y or Z shaped branching is concerning as it is often association with casts in necrotic tissue.
Pleomorphic or heterogeneous
Very tiny, irregular "bizzare broken glass shards formed into rounded pocket of necrotic tumor" appearance.
Calcification cluster shapes
Physiologic causes of gynecomastia
Pharmacological causes of gynecomastia
Hormonal causes of gynecomastia
Neonatal and adolescent hormonal surges
Decreased hormones in older men
Hormone therapy (estrogen)
Tumors causing gunecomastia
Male breast CA
Occurs in less than 1 % of men
Usually at age over 60
The prognosis is the same normalized to same stage
Lymphadenopathy in 50% on presentation due to late presentation
Risks: Kleinfelter's, high estrogen such as prostate CA treatment, mumps orchitis at older age.
Presentation: Usually hard painless lump subareolar or eccentric to nipple or upper outer quadrant. Discharge is not uncommon.
86% is ductal > medullary > papillary > intracystic papillary > invasive lobular (rare as lobeles are rare in men)
Pregnnacy associated breast CA
Defined as CA found during pregnancy or within 1 year of delivery.
Incidence 0.2 - 3.8% of pregnancies
Most are ductal
Generally a hard lump, +/- bloody discharge, breast edema
US exam is first choice, but mammo can be done, backscatter to fetus is minimal. Pump mild first to decrease breast density.
MRI: Breast is highly glandular with diffuse enhancement, but the contrast enhancement of the mass is usually still higher.
Prognosis: same when normalized for stage.
Pregnancy is an absolute contraindication to radiation therapy. Chemo can be done in 2nd and 3rd trimesters.
Occurs late in preganancy (2-3rd trimester) or in the lactation period.
Mammo: Solid, Well circumscribed, lobulated with distended tubules. On path has epithelial lining.
Usually firm, painless, rapidly enlarging during lactation, regresses after cessation of lactation.
US: oval/round/smooth with smooth margins. Can have cystic or necrotic spaces. Hypoechoic with echogenic bands (fibrotic)
Due to ducts damaged by surgery or biopsy. Presents in 3rd trimester
Mild filled cyst. May have fat fluid level on uprights..
Mammo: usually low or equal density well-circumscribed mass.
US: Cystic or solid-like. Posterior shadowing is possible
Aspiration is therapeutic.
Breast CA doubling times
Usually a bout 100 days. Mass doubling much faster or much slower is usually not CA
Criteria for Bi-RADS 3 classification
Less than 2% malignant potential.
Occurs on about 3% of screeners
Clustered small round or oval calcs on mag view
Noncalcified oval or lobulated well circumscribed solid mass
Asymmetric density resembling fibroglandular tissue
Recommendation is for 6 month follow-up to establish stability of the lesion
Postoperative changes in the breast
Scarring, distortion etc. Seen in about 50% of cases
Should decrease in size eventually stabilizing in the 305 year window.
50-55% have complete resolution
Fhould NEVER increase in size except immediate post-op period.
Fat necerosis is common post biopsy-results in oil cysts
There is strong enhancement up to 9 mths post biopsy or radiotherapy, which subsides in the 10-18 month window.
Contraindications to brast radiotherapy
Prior radiotherapy (as in failure or recurrence)
Multicentric or diffuse disease
Collagen vascular disease
Poor expected cosmetic result is a relative contraindication
Breast CA recurrence
About 1% per year therefore
about 5% at 5 years and 10% at 10-15 years
Most recurrencese occur in 7 year window, but not earlier than 18 months (guess those are due to incomplete resection?)
High risk for breast CA recurrence
Invasive ductal CA with extensive ductal complnent
Yonger age at presentation
Lymphatic or vascular invasion
Multicentric or diffuse disease
Level 1: inferolateral to lateral edge of pectoralis minor
Level II: Behind the pectoralis minor
Leve III: Between pectoralis minor and subclavius (Hosted's ligaments)
Chome effects on imaging
Decreases both physiologic glandular enhancement and CA inhancement.
Can change the inhancement curve to a more benign one, but the CA is not gone.
Obtain baseling scan immediately on completion of the chemo
Implant rupture types
Intracapsular: The envelope is broken bu the gel is contained by the vascular capsule.
Extracapsular: Gel globs escape into the tissue
Gel bleed: controversial - gel outside apparently intact envelope. Probably means a tiny rupture thats not visualized.
Implant rupture risks
Increases with implant age
Single envelope type implant
Sequences to get for implant MRI
T1, T2, GRE, STIR NO CONTRAST necessary
Signs of implant rupture
Waterdroplets (sensitive bu not specific)
Most popular is the TRAM: transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap.
Also can do latissimus dorsi with prior tissue expander followed by implant.
Can have almost any enhancement curve
linear branching from nipple (which is more rare) Focal mass
When associated with anothe rtumor may form a surrounding halo with a less worrysome enhancement pattern than the tumor itself.
Common MRI false positives
Mimicks of DCIS
focal fibrocystic changes
hormone related enhancement
Common false positive mimicking breast CA
Rapid enhancing intraductal papilloma
Avid enhancing fibroadenoma when it also has low T2
Lymph nodes without a fatty hilum
Rim enhancing fat necrosis
Enhancing spiculated surgical scar.
Non-enhancing DCIS or invasive lobular carcinoma- often with recent or concurrent chemo
Indications for breast MRI
MRCA 1 or 2 positive
Family or personal risk equivalent to BRCA 1 or 2
Obscured breast tissue (implant)
Suspicious lesion seen on 1 mammo view and negative US
Bloody discharge and negative or unsuccessful ductogram
Palpable mass with negative mammo and US
Need to locate breast primary when axillary mets found
To look for chest wall invasion
To evaluate extent when mammo is poor (dense breast, implants)
To evaluate extent of mass that is not seen on mammo (infiltrating lobular CA, DCIS without microcalcs)
To get basline prior no neoadjuvant therapy
To asses response.
To localize potential residual disease when mammo shows complete response.
Referrs to the enhansement curves
I: no enhancement
II: Linear continuous
III: Rapid early with slower late inhancement
IV: Early enhancement with late plateau
V: Early enhancement and late washous
Types I and II are benign. III is indeterminate. IV and V are malignant
MRI imaging characteristics
Mass T2 signal = to breast is a milgnant sign.
Mass T2 >> gland is abenign feature
Central enhancement is benign feature
Peripheral enhancing first is a malignant feature
T2 >> gland and rapid enhancing = probably benign such as lymph node or fibroadenoma
T2 >> gland and no enhancing = benign such as a cyst or duct
T2 << gland and rapid enhancing is supicious
T2 << gland and nonenhancing is benign such as sclerotic fibroadenoma
Cyst or duct on MRI
Ducts converge on the nipple.
No internal enhancement.
A cyst is allowed to have faint enhancing rim
Hormonal effect on MRI
Causes diffuse increased signal which changes with cycle or with hormone therapy. Best time to scan is 2 weeks post menses for the lowest diffuse signal
Fibrocystic changes MRI characteristics
Focal or regional enhancement especially in premenopausal women.
Usually gradual early with sustained gradual late curve (type II or III)
May have tiny associated microcysts
Lymph nodes on MRI
T2 >> gland
usually <5 mm with uniform high enhancement
Usually type IV or V curve-therefore looks suspicious
Look for the fatty hilum to prove it's a node
Fibroadenoma on MRI
Avid enhancing with dark septa
Yound adenomas are more enhancing.
Old ones are less enhancing and have dark regions corresponding to calcs
Enhancement is central first, usually type III or IV
Invasive ductal CA on MRI
Focal irregular or spiculated mass
Avid enhancing rim first. Enhancing septations. Often type IV curve.
T2 = to gland.
Look for skin/muscle/nipple invasion/distortion
Infiltrating lobular CA on MRI
Highly variale. Enhancement is similar to nl gland tissue.
No substantial mass effect.
Solitary or multiple
Just about any curve pattern
Mucinous CA on MRI
Central mucin does not enhance and has T2 >> gland.
Irregular/thick/nodular/enhancing rim (the actual mass)
Similar appearance to abscess.
Bi-RADS 2 criteria
Benign findings with no chance of malignancy
Involuting calcified fibroadenoma
Multiple secretory calcifications
Fat-containing lesions (oil cysts, lipoma, galactocele, mixed dense hamartoma)
Intramammary lymph nodes
Mammo positives and negatives
True positive: CA confirmed within 1 yr of positive mammogram
True negative: no CA within 1 yr of negative mammogram
False negative: Cancer confirmed within 1 yr of negative mammogram.
False positive: 3 types
1 - no CA confirmed within 1 yer of positive mammo
2- no CA identified within 1 year of recommendation for biopsy
3- Benign diagnosis within 1 year of a positive mammo
Mammo predictive values
Since there are 3 types of falswe positives, there are 3 types of predictive values
1 - TP/# of positive screening exams TP/(TP+FP1)
2 - TP/# of screens or diagnostics with recommendation for biopsy TP/(TP+FP2)
3 - Percent of biopsies resulting in positive findings as result of positive screenres or diagnostics. Also known as biopsy yield of malignancy or positive biopsy rate. TP/#niopsies or TP/(TP+FP3)
Terms for benign calcifications
Individual calcs - round, punctate
Clusters - cluster, regional, multiple clusters, diffuse
Terms for suspicious calcifications
Individual - pleuomorphic, fine linear branching, amorphous, coarse or fine heterogeneous, indistinct
Description of many calcs together
When reporting calcifications
Size of cluster
overall cahracteristics of the worst one
any changes from prior
Management (US, more views etc.)
Located peripherally, close to skin surface
Size is similar to skin pores
Look for other pores nearby to confirm location
medial part of brest (cleavage)
Plasma cell mastitis
Asymptomatic breast inflammation in older women
Imaging: usually see inspissated calcified secretions
Inflammataion is preductal or intraductal resulting in dense sausage like calcifications with lucent center or large solid rodlike or needle like calcifications respectively
The branching pattern is on order of centimeters since this is a disease of larger ducts. (DCIS branches multiple times within a centimeter since it involves smaller ducts)
Exactly what it says.
Usual age about 30
Mass is oval, lobulated and = density to glandular tissue
Calcifications are coarse and arise at the periphery and can replace the whole mass giving rise to "fibroid in the breast" appearance.
10-20% are multiple
An inflammatory process causes pleomorphic, bizarre shaped calcification.
Look for scars, oil cysts, fat necrosis on prior studies.
Calcifications that simulate DCIS
Scattere calcification that coalesce on one view
Malignant calcifications most often associated with DCIS
In decreasing order of frequency
Invasive ductal carinoma
calcifications increase in number over time, but a minority can stay stable in number over time
Bi-RADS mass shapes
Bi-RADS mass margins
Circumscribed - least worrysome - <10% CA
Microlobulated - more worrysome
Obscured - by superimposed tissue etc.
Indistinct - the actual border is fuzzy
Last two may represent local infiltration.
Bi-RADS mass density
This is with respect to normal glandular tissue
High - worst
Low - can still be CA, such as mucinous
Fat containing - always benign except a rare liposarcoma
Bi-RADS associated findings
Bi-RADS ultrasound terms
Shape - Oval, Round Irregular
Margin - Circuscribed, Angular, Indistinct, Microlobulated, Spiculated
Boundary - Abrupt interfacr, Echogenic halo
Echo pattern - Anechoic, Hyperechoic, Complex, Isoechoic, Hypoechoic
Entities presenting as spiculated mass
Invasive ductal CA
Invasive lobular CA
Fat necrosis (atypical presentation)
Incasive ductal carcinoma
Most common CA - accounts for 90% overall
Usually a hard irregular mass
Imaging: Classicly dense, irrregular, spiculated with occasional p leomorphic calcifications and sometimes with DCIS.
US: shadowing is common but not 100%. Spicules are intermediate, appearing dark on dense breast background and light on a fatty background.
MR: Brightly enhancing, +/- spicules, type IV or V enhacement curve
Invasive lobular CA
Usually an equal density maa with spiculation and ill-defined borders.
More often bilateral or multifocal and ductal CA.
Not too frequent, <10% of overall CA
Imaging: often difficult to see on mammo due to single cell strands or sheets habit. Because of this also very infiltrative and non-palpable.
No microcalcifications. Often seen on only 1 view with sbtle architectural distortion.
US: hyperechoic, irregular shape with spiculations or ill-defined border. Can have +/- shadowing even when large.
MR: variably enhancing. Considered better than Mammo, but still not great.
A slow growing CA, which is 12-40% bilateral on presentation. Has low metastatic rate. Radial scar may be precursor to this CA - controvercial.
Mammo: Dense, spiculated, occasional microcalcification.
US: Hypoechoic, irregular shape. +/- shadowing
Can enlarge in the immediate potoperative period but SHOULD NEVER ENLARGE thereafter. It should contract over a period of years with resulting architectural distortion of surrounding gland tissue.
US: hypoechoic, spiculated, frequently shadowing with distortion of adjacent tissues.
Best thing to confirm is look for prior biopsy sites, history of surgery.
Proliferative benign lesion from mammary hyperplasia - fibrous tissue distorts and envelops glandular tissue.
There is sclerosis of surrounding tissues, microcalcification in small ducts. No specific US characteristics.
Mostly benign prolefrative lesion - not an actual scar.
Common finding on biopsies and can not be distinguished form CA.
The central region atrophies pulling in and architecturaly distorting surrounding tissue - in other words, looks a lot like a scar.
Can contain or be associated with atypical ductal hyperplasia or DCIS-therefore excised when found.
Mammo: Spiculated mass appearing as a scar. Center can be dense or dar. May have microcalcs.
US: Hypoechoic, +/- shadowing
Lesions that are can be round
Invasive ductal CA
Adenoid cystic carcinoma
Epidermal inclusion cyst
Invasice ductal carcinoma
Most common malignancy to present as a round mass (uncommon presentation of very common disease)
The round ones may be the most malignant o wing to very rapid expansion that does not allow for formation of spiculation.
Border may be irregular on alternate view.
US: may have classic taller than wide appearance
Is a varian of invasive ductal CA, but with a better prognosis
Mammo: hyper or isoenhancing, well circumscribed margins.
US: Round, homogeneous echotecture, +.- shadowing.
Differential includes cyst or fibroadenoma
Rare. The malignant cells float in the mucin of their own production within a solid capsule.
US: fluid filled hypoechoic spaces with post-void enhancement.
Not entirely anechoic since the contents are viscous and with cells.
A rare CA accounting for only 1-2% of total
Is the malignant form of benign intraductal papilloma
Can be single or mutiple on presentation and can be associated with DCIS.
May have calcification, but more often not.
Solid mass in a cyst attached to the wall.
Mammo: may look like a cyst
US: Solid mass outlined by the darkness of the cystic fluid.
Fluid is often hemorrhagic on aspiration
Must be removed
Differential includes intracystic papilloma or a cyst with debris.
Common sources: are Breast and lymphoma
Usually round, well circumscribed and very dense.
Melanoma and RCC can cause multiple cannonballs appearance.
Multiple lound masses
Multifocal breast CA
Skin lesions (falce mass)
Most common solid benign tumor.
Also most common benign tumor in patients < 30
Considered giant when over 8 cm diameter
Juvenile - self explannatory. These are often giant.
Imaging: Classically oval or lobular, uqual density, smooth margins, very cellular on path. Later on becomes sclerotic and less cellular developing popcorn calcifications peripherally.
US: usually has wider than tall appearance. Allowed up to 4 gentle lobulation. Hypoechoic and may have a cystic component, +/- posterior enhancement or even shadowing.
Contains ductal elements so can include DCIS. Biopsy any suspicious change.
MR: Classic oval or lobulater mass, well circumscribed borders, dark internal sptations, usually type III dynamic curve.
Mostly benign, 10% malignancy rate. Most common mets site is to lung.
Classically presents in the 40s and already large, up to 5 cm. Rapid growth.
Has stromal and epithelial components and can have fluid componenets
Mammo: dense round/oval/lobulated, no calcifications, smooth borders
US: Smoothly marginated, inhomogeneous echotexture with cystic spaces
Differential includes fibroadenoma, circumscribed CA.
Arises in ductal epithellium. Therefore it is in ducts and often subareolar.
It can be multiple. In that case more often periphreal (in smaller ducts) and more risk of CA.
When in young pt, is a juvenile papilloma
Can twist on its stalk causing ischemia and necrosis, leading to the classic bloody discharge.
Mammo: Round, well circumscribed, equal density mass with calcifications. Often they are not seen.
US: oval/round/microlobulated, often with small cystic spaces in the juvenile type. Can be outlined by the fluid in a dilated duct.
Usually excised since there is arisk for DCIS.
Adenoid cystic carcinoma
Is very rare tumor consisting of mixed glandular and stromal elements.
Presetns as palpable firm mass.
Infiltrates frequently (50% rate)
Since few have been reported, no specific imaging characteristics.
Solid masses with indistinct margins
Invasive ductal CA
Invasive lobular CA
Primary or secondary non-Hodgikin's lymphoma
Squamous cell carcinoma
Is quite rare. Has malignant stromal elements.
Usually solid with ill-defined margins
Can be primary or secondary
Lymphadenomathy is the most common manifestation. Look for loss of fatty hila.
Primary or secondary Hodgkin's usually infiltrates the breast and looks like invasive ductal CA.
US: Hypoechoic masses
Treatment is chemo/rads, not surgery.
If there is a known primary, this should be the first on differential of multiple masses.
Pseudoangiomatous Stromal Hyperplasia
Rare benign growing ill-defined non-calcifyign mass.
Occurs in premanopausal women or potmenopausal on hormone therapy.
Can grow rapidly and can be synced to hormonal cycle
Fat containing masses
Rare autosomal sominant disease that presents with maultiple intradermal oil-cysts bilaterally, which may be palpable.
Mammo: Bilateral radiolucent masses all resembling oil-cysts, but intradermal rather than in the breast tissue and no history of trauma.
Mammo: Clasically oval with fat and fibroglandula tissue.
Can have a thin capsule or rim creating "breast within breast" sign.
Appearance is variable depending on ration of fat/stroma
Can develop it's own CA. Biopsy any suspicious changes.
Fluid icontaining masses
Do not touch breast lesions
Spidermal inclusion cyst
Usually occurs after mastitis, and usually associated with staph or strep
Immunosuppressed and diabetics are at increased risk
Usually subareolar, associated with erythematous skin with thickening and edema.
US: cyst with internal debris and septations.
Has epithelial lining
Subcutaneous with a little tail extending into the skin.
Looks simial to sebacioius cyst, except has epidermal lining
Nl breast US characteristics
The nipple is hypoechoic
Subcutaneous fat is hypoechoic
Gland is medium
Cooper's ligaments are hyperechoic
Subareolar ducts are hypoechoic and point to the nipple
In juveniles the breast bud may be mistaken for a mass (then the breast does not develop if it gets removed.)
Edema results in graying of the fat and indistinct ligaments
Flatten the breast for US to aviod anisotropy artifact
Most common breast mass acccuring in 7-10% of overall population.
Mammo: Can be solitary, multifocal or in clusters. No malignant potential. Waxing and waning course with hormonal cycle.
US benign features of a mass
Elipsoid in horizontal direction (wider than tall)
4 or less gentle lobulations
Thin echogenic capsule
and of course NO MALIGNANT FEATURES
US malignant features of a mass
Taller than wide, means it grew down through ligaments
Markedly hypoechoic to fat
Secondary signs of malignancy in the breast
Unilateral breast edema
Rarities (TB, Syphilis, Hydatid disease)
Lymphadenopathy secondary to obstruction
Trauma (esp post biopsy)
Bilateral breast edema
Bioipsy results requiring surgical excision
Atypical ductal hyperplasia
Papillary lesions with atypia
Lesions that could need biopsy
Nan-atypical papillary lesions
Atypical lubular hyperplasia
Hihgly sensitive but has low specificity
Try to image 7-10 days post perios for the lowest phase of normal tissue enhancement.
Include T1, T2, fut suppressed and 3d volumetric sequences.
Contrast: dynamic acquisition for about 7 minutes.
MRI benign features
Only mild enhancement
Smooth border or few lobulations
Septations are nonenhancing
Growth parallel to cooper's ligaments
Type I, II and maybe III dynamic curves
MRI malignant features
Brightly enhancing early, type IV or V dynamic curve
Spiculated or very irregular border
Frowth through Cooper's ligaments
Ductal linear branching form
Nipple discharge that is white or colors
Endocrine (lactation or pregnancy)
Tumor (prolactinoma, other such)
Drugs (dopamine recptor blockers or dopamine depletors
Nipple discharge that is bloody
Papilloma (twisting leads to ischemia, most common)
Nipple discharge principles
Usualy benign if discharge from multiple ducts
Do a ductogram
If unsuccessful or negative - do MRI
Benign intraductal papilloma
Fibrovascular stalk is attached to duct wall. Has ductal epithelium.
Can be single or multiple
Extends along the duct
MR: Small smooth nodule at terminus of a duct, which enhances.
Can be non-enhancing
Can be irregular, rapid enhancing with spicules. This type is not distinguishable from CA.
Look for a mass at the end of a fluid filled duct (not pathognomonic, but helps)
Is secondary to plugging of a duct.
This entity recurrs after draining.
The only treatment is to excise the abscess and the fistulous duct.
Solid mass in a fluid filled cyst
Intracystic carcinoma etc.
Breast density changes
Occur with hormon cycling or hormone replacement in response to estrogen and progesterone, but not estrogen only.
Raloxifene increases density in rare case
Medroxyprogesterone depot can decrease density
Tamoxifen decreases density in some
Is usually not due to CA
Monthly physiologic changes
50% of cases are benign
Collagen vascular disease
Axillary lylmphadenopathy with calcifications
Gold from RA therapy
Silicone to nodes
Acute thrombophlebitis of superficial breast veins
Often secondary to trauma or surgery (biopsy)
Can be idiopathic
Presents with acute pain and point tenderness along the lateral breast or region of involved vein. THere is a tender palpable cord (the thrombosed vein)
Resolves over 2-12 weeks by recanalization or complete obliteration of offending vein.
Rare, usually occurs after childbirth
Mammo: can present as asymmetric density, illdefined mass or negative. Does not have calcifications.
US: also variable. Findings aften suspicious leading to biopsy which shows granulomatous changed and giant cells
Treatment is surgical excision, hormonal treatment, methorexate, colchicine
But there is 50% recurrence rate
It is infiltrative and agressive
Can be multicentric
Recurrs after excision, often within 3 years
Associated with prior trauma/surgery or implants
Presentation: classic is a solitary hard painless mass that can be fixed to the skin or pectoral fascia
Treatment is surgical excision with wide margins. Radiation can be considered if surg expected to have ppor outcome
Mammo: spiculated mass - requirs biopsy