Firefighter 2 -- Rescue & Extrication
About this set
CPMiller on January 3, 2011
Proboard and IFSAC Firefighter 2 certification. If you find any errors or anything I missed, let me know and I will correct/add. Information and page numbers are taken from: Essentials of Fire Fighting. 5th ed., IFSTA, Fire Protection Publications Oklahoma State University and Colorado Division of FProboard and IFSAC Firefighter 2 certification. If you find any errors or anything I missed, let me know and I will correct/add. Information and page numbers are taken from: Essentials of Fire Fighting. 5th ed., IFSTA, Fire Protection Publications Oklahoma State University and Colorado Division of Fire Safety, Firefighter 2 JPRs. (see more)
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|Inverter||Auxiliary electrical power generating device. The inverter is a step-up transformer that converts the vehicle's 12- or 24-volt DC current into 110- or 220-volt AC current. (Page 331)|
|Generator|| Auxiliary electrical power generating device. Portable generators are powered by small gasoline or diesel engines and generally have 110- and/or 220-volt capacities.|
|NFPA 70E|| Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace|
|Arc|| A luminous discharge of electricity across a gap. Arcs produce very high temperature.|
|Hydraulics|| Branch of fluid mechanics dealing with the mechanical properties of liquids and the application of these properties in engineering.|
|Shoring|| General term used for lengths of timber, screw jacks, hydraulic and pneumatic jacks, and other devices that can be used as temporary support for formwork or structural components or used to hold sheeting against trench walls. Individual supports are called shores, cross braces, and struts.|
|Cribbing|| Varying lengths of hardwood, usually 4x4 inch or larger, used to stabilize vehicles and collapsed buildings during extrication incidents.|
|Block & Tackle|| Series of pulleys (sheaves) contained within a wood or metal frame. They are used with rope to provide a mechanical advantage for pulling operations.|
|Triage|| System used for sorting and classifying accident casualties to determine the priority for medical treatment and transportation.|
|Stabilization|| Process of providing additional support to key places between an object of entrapment and the ground or other solid anchor points to prevent unwanted movement.|
|Chock|| Wooden, plastic, or metal block constructed to fit the curvature of a tire; placed against the tire to prevent apparatus from rolling.|
|Packaging|| Readying a patient for transport|
|Safety Glass (Laminated Glass)|| Special glass composed of two sheets of glass that are laminated to a sheet of plastic sandwiched between them under high temperature and pressure. Primarily used for automobile windshields and some rear windows.|
|Tempered Glass|| Type of glass specially treated to become harder and more break-resistant than plate glass or a single sheet of laminated glass. Tempered glass is most commonly used in side windows and some rear windows.|
|Unibody Construction|| Method of automobile construction used for most modern cars in which the frame and body of a vehicle is all one integral unit.|
|Secondary Collapse|| A collapse that occurs after the initial collapse of a structure. There are many possible causes, but an aftershock (earthquake), the movement of structural members, or weather conditions are common causes.|
|Tourniquet|| Any wide, flat material wrapped tightly around a limb to stop bleeding; used only for severe lie-threatening hemorrhage that cannot be controlled by other means.|
|Describe powered hydraulic tools used in rescue incidents.|| Rescue tools operated by hydraulic fluid pumped through special high-pressure hoses. There are 4 basic types of powered hydraulic tools used in rescue incidents: spreaders, shears, combination spreader/shears, and extension rams. |
|NFPA 1670|| Standard on Operations and Training for Technical Search and Rescue Incidents|
|What are air chisels and pneumatic nailers commonly used for?|| Air Chisels: Good for cutting medium- to heavy-guage sheet metal and for popping rivets and bolts|
Pneumatic Nailer: Drive nails or heavy duty staples into wood or masonry. Useful for nailing wedges and other wooden components of shoring systems into place.
|List four safety rules when using pneumatic lifting bags.||Any 4 of the following:|
-Plan operation before starting
-Be familiar with the equipment, its operation principles and methods, and its capabilities and limitations.
-Follow the manufacturer's recommendations for the specific systems used
-All components should be kept in good operation condition with all sagety seals in place
-Have available an adequate air supply and sufficient cribbing before beginning operations
-Bags should be positioned on or against a solid surface
-Bags should be protected from sharp objects during inflation.
-Bags should be inflated slowly and monitored continually for any shifting.
-Never work under a load supported only by airbags.
-Continuously shore up with enough cribbing to adequately support the load in case of bag failure. Lift an inch, crib an inch.
-When box cribbing is used, the top layer should be solid
-Bags should not contact materials hotter than 220 degrees F.
-Bags should never be stacked more than 2 high. Place the smaller bag on top, and inflate the bottom bag first.
|Why is stabilizing vehicles involved in incidents important?|| It is vital to prevent further injury to the victims or possible injuries to rescuers.|
|What are the common means of locating hidden victims in the rubble of a structural collapse?||-Hailing: Calling out to elicit a response from hidden victims|
-Use seismic or short-distance radar devices that are capable of detecting the minute vibrations produced by victims' movements
-Use electronically enhanced acoustic listening devices that allow rescuers to hear otherwise imperceptible sounds.
-Use search cameras that are hand=held or robotic industrial-quality video cameras often equipped with lenses attached to fiber-optic cables
-Use TICs (Thermal Imaging Camera) that are similar to video cameras but are sensitive to differences in temperature rather than light.
-Use search dogs
|Discuss maintaining emergency power equipment||-Review the manufacturer's service manual for specific directions. Gather the tools and service parts needed to perform the service and maintenance items.|
-Carefully inspect the spark plug for damage, any visible corrosion, carbon accumulation or cracks in the porcelain. Check to make sure the spark plug wire is tight.
-If needed, replace the spark plug, ensuring proper gap prior to installation.
-Check equipment carburetor and identify any signs of leaks
-Check fuel level and fill with fuel as necessary
-Discard old fuel (older than 3 weeks) and replace with new fuel. May not be necessary if fuel stabilizer is used.
-Check oil level and replenish oil as needed
-Start the generator and run any test identified in the users manual
|List 3 lifting/pulling tools used in rescue operations|| Any 3 of the following:|
-Pneumatic Lifting Bags
-Block and Tackle Systems
|Explain the size-up process for a vehicle incident||-Begins as soon as the first emergency vehicle approaches the accident scene.|
-Traffic hazards and control measures?
-How many and what types of vehicles are involved? Are any of them hybrid or alternative fuels?
-Where and how are the vehicles positioned? Are they on the roadway?
-How many victims are there and what is their condition?
-Is there a fire or potential for a fire?
-Are there any hazardous materials involved?
-Are there any utilities that may have been damaged? If so, are they a hazard?
-Is there a need for additional resources?
|Describe items to look for when assessing the need for extrication activities|| -Number of victims in or around the vehicle and the severity of injuries|
-Condition of the vehicle
-Any hazardous conditions
-Nature and extent of entrapment of victims
-Survey the area around the scene looking for additional vehicles, hazards, victims
|Discuss stabilizing vehicles involved in a vehicle incident||-Vehicles need to be stabilized vertically and horizontally, preventing movement in any direction. |
-After vehicle is stabilized, shut down the electrical power within the vehicle. Before killing the power, roll down any power windows, unlock power doors, and move power seats if needed.
-Use extra caution when disconnecting the power supply on hybrid vehicles.
-Never place any body part under the vehicle while stabilization is in progress.
|List the three methods of gaining access to victims in vehicles|| -Through a normally operating door|
-Through a window
-By cutting away parts of the vehicle body
|List the most common hazards associated with wrecked passenger vehicles|| -Oil- and air-filled struts for hoods, trunk lids, and bumpers|
-Fuel and other flammable liquids
-Contents of trunk or vehicle interior
|Explain the dangers associated with Supplemental Restraint Systems (SRS) and Side-Impact Protection Systems (SIPS)|| Accidental activation of the systems during extrication or fire suppression activities.|
|Describe basic actions taken for patient management|| -Choose the easiest route to gain access|
-At least one rescuer with appropriate training should enter the vehicle to begin patient stabilization, assessment, and treatment and to protect the patient while extrication is in progress.
|Describe patient removal|| -Vehicle is removed from around the patient. The patient is not removed from the vehicle. |
-Cover any sharp edges
-Make sure openings are big enough to safely extricate the patient
|Discuss removing glass from vehicles||Laminated glass: the best method to remove laminated glass is with a saw. Common tools used are: air chisel, axe, reciprocating saw, handsaw with a coarse blade, hay hook, windshield saw|
Tempered glass: can easily be broken by either striking them with a sharp, pointed object in the lower corner of the window or by using a spring-loaded center punch. Applying a layer of spray adhesive or duct tape can ease in the removal of the glass.
|Explain considerations when removing vehicle roof and doors||-Roof removal can either be done by cutting the A, B, and C posts and removing the roof entirely or by cutting only the front posts, cutting relief notches and folding the roof back over the trunk. |
-Vehicles should be well supported before removing the roof
-Doors can be opened from the handle side or be removed completely by inserting the spreader into the crack on the hinge side
-Cutting hinges, breaking the latch mechanism (Nader pin) or compromising door locks are other methods to gain access through a door
|Describe common patterns of structural collapse||Pancake collapse: Occurs when simultaneous failure of exterior walls results in the upper floors and the rood collapsing on top of each other such as in a stack of pancakes|
V-shaped collapse: Occurs when the outer walls remain intact and the upper floors and/or roof structure fail in the middle
Lean-to collapse: Occurs when one outer wall fails while the opposite wall remains intact
A-frame collapse: Occurs when the floor and/or roof assemblies on both sides of a center wall collapse into what might be seen as opposing lean-to collapses
Cantilever collapse: Occurs when one or more walls of a multistory building collapse, leaving the floors attached to and supported by the remaining walls.
|Describe structural collapse hazards||Environmental hazards: damaged utilities, atmospheric contamination, hazardous materials contamination, darkness, noise, fire, temperature extremes, adverse weather conditions|
Physical hazards: secondary collapse, unstable debris, confined spaces, exposed wiring and rebar, heights, sharp jagged edges on rubble
|Describe shoring|| Any of a variety of means by which unstable structures or parts of structures can be stabilized. It is the process of preventing the sudden or unexpected movement of objects that are too large to me moved in a timely manner and that may pose a threat to victims and/or rescuers|
|Discuss technical rescue incidents|| Technical rescue incidents can include:|
-Rescue from collapse buildings
-Rescue from trench cave-ins
-Confined space rescues
-Rescues from caves, mines, and tunnels
-Rescues involving electricity
-Water and ice rescue
|Service and maintain portable power plants and lighting equipment (Job Performance Requirement as per Colorado Division of Fire Safety)|| -Operate power plants, power tools, and lighting equipment|
-Clean and maintain equipment according to manufacturer's or departmental guidelines
-Document required maintenance and inspection
-Place equipment in or out of service as applicable
(Colorado Division of Fire Safety Firefighter 2 JPR 5D)
|Extricate a victim trapped in a motor vehicle (Job Performance Requirement as per Colorado Division of Fire Safety)||-Properly wear PPE (gloves, coat, face shields, eye protection, etc.)|
-Stabilize vehicle (up and down, side to side)
-Disentangle victim without further injury
-Have charged hose lines in place
-Operate hand and power tools used for forcible entry and rescue as designed
-Apply appropriate techniques for moving and removing vehicle roof, doors, windshield, windows, steering wheel or column, and the dashboard
(Colorado Division of Fire Safety Firefighter 2 JPR 4A)
|Assist rescue teams (Job Performance Requirement as per Colorado Division of Fire Safety)|| -Properly wear PPE|
-Safely follow standard operating procedure according to AHJ (Agency having jurisdiction)
-Establish public barrier and work area
-Recognize and retrieve rescue tools in a timely manner
-Assist rescue team with victim removal
(Colorado Division of Fire Safety Firefighter 2 JPR 4B)
|Discuss maintaining emergency lighting equipment||-Inspect all electrical cords for frayed or damaged insulation or missing or bent prongs. Replace any plug with signs of arcing|
-Test the operation of the lighting equipment
-Replace light bulbs as necessary
-Clean work area and return all tools and equipment to the proper storage areas
-Document the maintenance on the appropriate forms or records.
|List 3 pneumatic tools used in rescue operations|| Any 3 of the following:|