Pendleton Act of 1883
authorized a bipartisan civil service commision to make appointments to federal jobs through the merit system on the basis of preformance on an examintaion
Gospel of Wealth
This was a book written by Carnegie that described the responsibility of the rich to be philanthropists. This softened the harshness of Social Darwinism as well as promoted the idea of philanthropy.
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
William Graham Sumner
He was an advocate of Social Darwinism claiming that the rich were a result of natural selection and benefits society. He, like many others promoted the belief of Social Darwinism which justified the rich being rich, and poor being poor.
Due process clause
Part of the 14th amendment which guarantees that no state deny basic rights to its people
laws designed to restrict personal behavior in accord with a strict code of morality.
Corrupt organized groups that controlled political parties in the cities. A boss leads the machine and attempts to grab more votes for his party.
republican reformers who were accused of backing reform simply to create openings for their own supporters.
A group of renegade Republicans who supported 1884 Democratic presidential nominee Grover Cleveland instead of their party's nominee, James G. Blaine.
A government printed ballot of uniform size and shape to be cast in secret that was adopted by many states around 1890 in order to reduce the voting fraud associated with party printed ballots cast in public.
National American Women Suffrage Association
Formed in 1890 and united 2 major women's suffrage groups at that time discrimination, and recognition of human brotherhood
Middle-class ideal where home life was strictly separated from the workplace and womens roles were separate from mens, with women running the household and men earning money outside it.
Women's Christian Temperance Union
This organization was dedicated to the idea of the 18th Amendment - the Amendment that banned the manufacture, sale, or transportation of alcohol.
became leader of the WCTU. She worked to educate people about the evils of alcohol. She urged laws banning the sale of liquor. Also worked to outlaw saloons as step towards strengthening democracy.
Southern political movement that sought and did return "home rule" to the southern states during reconstruction
Colored Farmers Alliance
Tried to unite poor blacks and poor whites for rights against wealthy power merchants
a required test to be taken by African Americans in order to be elligable to vote
Grand Father Clause
A law under which any one who had voted before 1866 or who descended from a person (grand father) who had voted before 1866 was not required to meet various voting registration requirements. It was declared unconstitutional in Guinn v. US (1915)
Jim Crow Laws
The "separate but equal" segregation laws state and local laws enacted in the Southern and border states of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965
Plessy v. Ferguson
sumpreme court ruled that segregation public places facilities were legal as long as the facilites were equal
William v. Mississippi
case that reviewed provisions of the state constitution that set requirements for voter registration. The Supreme Court did not find discrimination in the state's requirements for voters to pass a literacy test and pay poll taxes, as these were applied to all voters.
an early leader in the civil rights movement. She documented the extent of lynching in the United States, and was also active in the women's rights movement and the women's suffrage movement.
Booker T. Washington
African American progressive who supported segregation and demanded that African American better themselves individually to achieve equality.
Major speech on race-relations given by Booker T. Washington addressing black labor opportunities, and the peril of whites ignoring black injustice
1st black to earn Ph.D. from Harvard, encouraged blacks to resist systems of segregation and discrimination, helped create NAACP in 1910
Farm-based movement of the late 1800s that arose mainly in the area from Texas to the Dakotas and grew into a joint effort between farmer and labor groups against big business and machine-based politics. The movement became a third party in the election of 1892.
A Farmers' organization founded in late 1870s; worked for lower railroad freight rates, lower interest rates, and a change in the governments tight money policy
Political issue involving the unlimited coinage of silver, supported by farmers and William Jennings Bryan
coined money, usually gold or silver, used to back paper money
currency of the u.s. prior to 1873 which consisted of gold or silver coins as well as U.S. treasury notes that could be traded in for gold or silver
Bland-Allison Act of 1878
Passed in response to the influence of silverites. Allowed the Treasury to buy between $2-4million of silver and coined at a 16:1 ratio with gold. Appeal to populists
Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890
called for the increase of silver in money supply which decreased its worth. As the price of silver continued to decline, holders of the government notes understandably redeemed them for gold rather than silver. The result of the growing disparity between the two metals was the depletion of the U.S. gold reserves
1894; along with other unemployed people lead a march to Washington, D.C., to support enactment of laws that would create public works projects
William Jennings Bryan
Democratic candidate for president in 1896 under the banner of "free silver coinage" which won him support of the Populist Party.
Cross of Gold Speech
An impassioned address by William Jennings Bryan at the 1896 Deomcratic Convention, in which he attacked the "gold bugs" who insisted that U.S. currency be backed only with gold.
business mogul, financial power behind McKinley's nomination and his subsequent campaign for president; promised a strong and prosperous industrial nation; a mass media genius
25th president responsible for Spanish-American War, Philippine-American War, and the Annexation of Hawaii, imperialism. Is assassinated by an anarchist