Chapter 13 - The Great War 1914-1918

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imperialism

a policy in which strong nations seek to dominate other countries, politically, socially, and economically.

nationalism

the belief that people should be loyal mainly to their nation--that is, to the people with whom they share a culture and history--rather than to a king of empire.

militarism

the policy of glorifying military power and keeping an army prepared for war.

Trilple Alliance

Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy

Triple Entente

France, Britain, and Russia

Kaiser Wilhelm II

German emperor who forced Bismarck to resign

Central Powers

named for their location at the heart of Europe, consisted of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and later Bulgaria and the Ottoman Turks

Allied Powers

Great Britain, France, Russian and later Japan and Italy.

Western Front

the deadlocked region in northern France that bordered Germany.

Schlieffen Plan

Germany's plan to attack and defeat France in the west and then rushing east to fight Russia.

trench warfare

Warfare in which soldiers fought each other from trenches and armies traded huge losses of human life for pitifully small land gains.

Eastern Front

a stretch of battlefield along the German and Russian border

unrestricted submarine warfare

German policy of using subarmines to sink ships without warning in the waters around Britain.

total war

when countries devote all their resources to the war effort

rationing

system in which people can only buy small amounts of items that are also needed for the war effort.

propoganda

one-sided information designed to persuade, to keep up morale and support for the war

armistice

an agreement to stop fighting

Woodrow Wilson

U.S. representative at the Paris Peace Conference

Georges Clemenceau

French representative at the Paris Peace Conference

Fourteen Points

a series of proposals in which U.S. president Woodrow Wilson outlined a plan for achieving a lasting peace after WWI

self-determination

idea that you should allow people to decide for themselves under what government they wished to live

Treaty of Versailles

treaty signed between Germany and the Allied powers--it created the League of Nations and punished Germany who was blamed with war guilt. Germany lost substantial territory, had restrictions placed on its military operations and was required to pay reparations to the Allies.

The three forces at work in Europe that helped set the stage for war

Imperialism, Nationalism which intensified rivalry among nations, and Militarism which increased their fighting power.

The single event that helped set WWI in motion

assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

The characteristics of trench warfare

fighting from trenches with a no man's land in between them, trading huge losses for little territorial gain

Factors that contributed to Russia's war difficulties

lack of industrialization, shortages of food and supplies, and the German blockade of ports.

Factors that helped prompt the United States to join the war for the Allies

Germany's unresticted submarine warfare, Zimmerman note, U.S. ties with Britain and the Allies

Role of women in WWI

They helped run factories, farms, and towns, and kept troops supplied with food, clothing and weapons.

Significance of the Second Battle of the Marne

The Allies forced the Germans to retreat from France.

Goal of Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points

To create a just and lasting peace throughout the world.

The war guilt clause

Provision that blamed Germany for the war and required reparations

Why the United States rejected the Treaty of Versailles

Americans objected to the settlement and to the League of Nations; they believed that their best hope for peace was to stay out of European affairs.

"The powder keg of Europe"

The Balkans, it was home to many ethnic groups and had a history of ethnic clashes and nationalistic uprisings.

Significance of the First Battle of the Marne

Germany's defeat there forced them to abandon the Schlieffen Plan and fight a two-front war.

Purpose of Gallipoli campaign

To conquer the Ottoman Turks and establish a supply line to Russia.

Mandate system

Allies' governance of former colonies and territories, who wanted independence and viewed the mandate as continued colonialism.

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