AP 11 Lit Terms 3

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This is the third set for AP 11 literary and rhetorical terms

oxymoron

two contradictory words joined together; a condensed form of paradox

paradox

a seemingly contradictory statement or idea which resolves itself upon further logical investigation

paraphrase

rewording another person's statements for the purpose of clarification; approximately the same length as the original

plot

sequence of events rendered in a narrative or drama

exposition

beginning of a narrative or drama; establishes setting, voice, characters, and conflict

rising action

second stage in development of narrative or drama; tension builds as characters struggle to resolve conflict

climax

turning point in narrative or drama; main conflicts are at their high points and solution is emminent

falling action

stage in narrative or drama that shows the immediate effects of the climax,

resolution

final part of a narrative or drama; conflict is resolved and remaining questions usu. answered; aka denoument

personification

giving human characteristics to inanimate objects or animals

point of view

the perspective from which a story is told

omniscient

describes a point of view that includes all of the characters' thoughts and feelings

limited

describes a point of view that is restricted to one character

first person

describes a point of view in which the narrator tells the story from his/ her own perspective using the pronouns I, we, my, etc.

third person

describes a point of view in which the narrator uses the pronouns he, she, it, etc., but not I or me.

prose

writing in paragraphs, as opposed to verse

pun

a phrase that deliberately exploits confusion between two similarly-sounding words or homophones

protagonist

the central character in a story

rhetoric

the art of using language effectively and convincingly, especially to persuade or argue

rhetorical appeals

the ways in which a writer can influence his/ her audience; there are 3: logos, ethos, and pathos

logos

appeal to reason (think logic)

ethos

appeal to moral and values (think ethics)

pathos

appeal to emotion (think sympathy)

rhetorical fallacies

flawed logic that makes an argument invalid

rhetorical question

a technique wherein an author poses a question that does not require an answer; the answer is implicit and the question results in an emotional effect

satire

writing that pokes fun at its subject in order to point out flaws in people or society; uses exaggeration, irony, and sarcasm

setting

the time and place of a scene in a story

short story

a work of fiction that can be read in one sitting

style

the way an author suprises us by manipulating sound, meaning, and structure; can be expressed w/ an adjective, but is better when described and supported (contrast with tone and voice)

syntax

sentence structure (Here are some types: simple, compound, complex, periodic, cumulative)

theme

an insight about human life that an author of fiction, drama, or poetry conveys to the reader; is 1-2 sentences long, contains main ideas, and is universal

stated theme

a quote from the text that gives an insight about human life; author writes it

implied theme

the reader interprets the insight on human life that a story conveys; reader discovers it

thesis

the main point of an essay (nonfiction), expressed in a 1-2 sentence statement and including the main ideas in the body of the paper

tragic hero

a literary character who, though being well-liked, makes an error in judgment or fatal flaw and brings about his demise

tone

the author's attitude toward his/ her subject, usu. described with an adjective (contrast w/ style)

verse

lines of poetry, as opposed to writing in prose

voice

the persona an author takes on when writing; unique to one author or one story only (contrast w/ style)

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