Blood Circulation of the head and neck

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Plexus

large network of vessels

Anastomosis

connecting channel between vessels

Break down of vessels from largest to smalled

Artery>arteriole>capillary>venule>vein

Venous sinus

blood filled space between two layers of tissue

Branches of the aorta (3)

(1) right brachiocephalic--splits into right subclavian and right common carotid; (2) left common carotid; (3) Left subclavian

Common carotid divides into what 2 arteries?

internal and external carotid

Swelling of the common carotid just before the division is?

carotid sinus--position of a reliable carotid pulse

Internal carotid supplies which organ?

The brain

External carotid (EC) supplies? And names branches

extracranial tissues of the head and neck
Branches of EC=anterior, medial, posterior, and terminal

EC Anterior group--Superior thyroid artery Supplies?

Supplies tissue interior to hyoid bone: infrahyoid muscles, Sternocleidomastoid, muscles of larynx, and thyroid gland

EC Anterior group--Lingual artery supplies? Branches?

supplies suprahyoid tissues, tissues of floor of the mouth and the tongue
Branch--sublingual artery--supplies floor of the mouth

EC Anterior group--Facial artery supplies? Branches?

supplies the oral, buccal, zygomatic, nasal, infraorbital, and orbital regions
Branches--ascending palatine, submental, inferior and superior labial, angular(termination of facial artery)

EC Medial group--Ascending pharyngeal artery supplies?

tissues of pharynx and covering of brain
comes of medial side of carotid (difficult to see)

EC Posterior group--Occipital arty supplies?

suprahyoid and SCM muscles, scalp, and meninges (coverings of the brain)

EC Posterior group--Posterior auricular artery supplies?

internal ear and mastoid air cells

EC terminal group--Superficial temporal artery supplies? Arises in which salivary gland?

portions of the face and scalp
Arises in parotid salivary gland

EC terminal group--Maxillary artery Branches? Travels in which fossa of the skull? Terminates where?

Larger terminal branch of EC
Begins at mandibular condyle
Travels in infratemporal fossa giving off many branches
Terminates in the sphenopalatine

Maxillary Branches--Middle meningeal artery supplies? Enters which cranial foramen:

supplies meninges of the brain
Enters cranium via foramen spinosum

Maxillary Branches--Inferior alveolar (IA) artery supplies? Enters which foramen? Which artery branches off before entering foramen? Terminates in?

Supplies Mandibular teeth (dental and alveolar branches) and mandible
Enters mandibular foramen and runs in mandibular canal
Mylohyoid artery is given off just before IA enters mandibular canal.

Branches of IA artery?

Mylohyoid--runs in mylohyoid groove and supplies floor of mouth and mylohyoid muscle
Mental--exits mental foramen--supplies chin and lower lip
Incisive--remains in mandibular canal; gives off dental and alveolar branches to mandibular anterior teeth

Maxillary branches to muscles of mastication?

Deep temporal--temporalis muscles
Pterygoid--lateral and medial pterygoid muscles
Masseteric--masseter muscle
Buccal--to buccinator

Maxillary branches--Posterior Alveolar (PSA) enters which foramina? and supplies what?

Enters the Posterior alveolar foramina on the maxillary tuberosity
Supplies the posterior maxillary teeth by giving off dental and alveolar branches

Maxillary Branches--Infraorbital artery enters the orbit through? travels through which canal? gives off which branches?

Enter orbit through inferior orbital fissure
Travels through the infraorbital canal
Gives off--Orbital and Anterior Superior alveolar (ASA)
Emerges onto the face from the infraorbital foramen

ASA gives off what branches? and anastomoses with with artery?

Gives off dental and alveolar branches for anterior maxillary teeth
Anastomoses with PSA

Maxillary Branches--Palatine arteries branches? Supply?

Greater and Lesser palatine are branches to the hard and soft palate
Greater= hard palate
Lesser=soft palate

Maxillary Branches--sphenoplatine artery supplies? gives off what branch? travels through which foramen? with which nerve?

Terminal branch of maxillary artery
supplies nasal cavity
Gives off nasopalatine branch that accompanies the nasopalatine nerve through the incisive foramen on maxilla

Internal jugular drains?

brain and most of the tissues of the head and neck

External jugular drains?

small portion of extracanial tissues

Facial vein drains? and travels with what artery?

Drains parts of the orbit
travels with the facial artery from medial side of eye

Retromandibular vein formed from merger of what two veins? Connects with facial vein to form which larger vein?

Formed by merger of superficial temporal and maxillary veins
connects with facial vein to form external jugular vein

Pterygoid Plexus located in which fossa? Surrounds which major artery?

Collection of small veins
Located in Infratemporal fossa
Surrounds Maxillary artery
Protects maxillary artery from compression during chewing

Blood flow to the heart: what two veins join to form the brachiocephalic vein?

External jugular and subclavian veins

R and L brachiocephalics unite to form which major vein of the hear?

Superior vena cava--which leads to the right side of the heart (R atrium)

Thrombus

clot that forms on inner blood vessel wall

Embolus

foreign material or thrombi traveling in blood that can block a vessel

Bacteremia

Bacteria in the blood

Hemorrhage

Blood loss

Hematoma

Blood trapped in tissue from injured vessel (Bruise)

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