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Study Guide to help students memorize the Olympian gods/goddesses, monsters, heroes, and myths of Ancient Greece.

Zeus

king of the Greek Gods; Roman name Jupiter; God of the Sky; often seen with the thunderbolt

Apollo

god of poetry, music, prophecy, medicine, light, and archery; often seen with a bow and arrow or golden harp (lyre); Roman name also Apollo

Ares

was the god of war and bloodshed; Roman name Mars; In appearance, he was handsome and cruel. He is often depicted carrying a bloodstained spear and wearing armor. His throne on Mount Olympus was said to be covered in human skin.

Poseidon

the god of the sea, earthquakes, and horses; often seen with a trident or a horse drawn chariot; Roman name Neptune

Hermes

the messenger of the gods and guide of dead souls to the Underworld. A prankster and inventive genius from birth, Hermes aided the heroes Odysseus and Perseus in their quests; often seen with winged shoes, winged helmet, and caduceus (short staff entwined by two serpents, sometimes surmounted by wings at the top); Roman name Mercury

Hephaestus

was the lame god of fire and blacksmiths. His symbols are often a blacksmith hammer, and anvil, and an axe. He was the son of Zeus and Hera or, in some accounts, of Hera alone. He limped because he was born lame, which caused his mother to throw him off Mount Olympus. Or in other accounts he interceded in a fight between Zeus and Hera, and Zeus took him by the foot and threw him from Olympus to the earth far below; Roman name Vulcan

Aphrodite

goddess of love, beauty and fertility; also a protectress of sailors; often seen with a dove, a myrtle tree, and a hairbrush; Roman name Venus

Artemis

goddess of the hunt and the moon; often depicted as a young woman clad in buckskins, carrying a bow and a quiver of arrows; often accompanied by wild creatures such as a stag or a bear; Roman name Diana

Athena

goddess of crafts and the domestic arts and also those of war. She was the patron goddess of Athens. Her symbol was the owl; originally the Great Goddess in the form of a bird; by the late Classics, she had come to be regarded as a goddess of wisdom as well; Roman name Minerva

Demeter

goddess of agriculture; when depicted in art; is often shown carrying a sheaf of grain or corn; Roman name Ceres

Hera

goddess of marriage; wife of Zeus and Queen of the Olympians; Roman name Juno

Hestia

goddess of the hearth and home; hearth refers to the home, the fireside, and all of the love of family and relatives; often seen with a fire in her hands representing a fireplace in a home; Roman name Vesta

Hades

god of the dead and the underworld; brother of Zeus and Poseidon, often isn't included as an Olympian God because he dwelt in the Underworld and not on Olympus. His Roman name was Pluto.

Myths

Old stories that tried to help people of Ancient times understand such things as: the supernatural powers of the gods, the origins of the world or how humans came to be, these stories were thought to be true by their original tellers-no matter how wild or strange they seem to us

Pan

god of shepherds and flocks; he has the hindquarters, legs, and horns of a goat; the son of Hermes; not always shown as an Olympian god; often shown with a wind instrument called a panpipe; considered to be the cause of the sudden fear that sometimes comes for no reason, especially in lonely places. That's why it's called "panic".
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