## Physics Mid-term Review Vocabulary

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qv12_greener  on January 4, 2011

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# Physics Mid-term Review Vocabulary

 Accuracya description of how close a measurement is to the true value of the quantity measured
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#### Definitions

Accuracy a description of how close a measurement is to the true value of the quantity measured
controlled experiment an experiment in which only one variable is manipulated at a time
Dimension the magnitude of something in a particular direction (especially length or width or height)
Electromagnetism magnetic field created by electricity
Error The difference between the experimental value and the accepted value
Hypothesis a proposal intended to explain certain facts or observations
inverse Relationship a relationship in which one variable decreases when another variable increases.
Direct Relationship (Linear Relationship) a relationship between two factors in which the factors move in the same direction
Mechanics the branch of physics concerned with the motion of bodies in a frame of reference
Model the act of representing something (usually on a smaller scale)
Optics n. The science that treats of light and vision, and all that is connected with sight.
physics the study of matter and energy
precision a measure of how close a series of measurements are to one another
Quantum Mechanics behavior of submicroscopic particles
Relativity the study of the relationships among space, energy, mass and time
replication experiment When a previously designed and completed experiment is repeated and its validity is tested.
Significant figures all known digits plus one estimated digit
scientific method a series of steps followed to solve problems including collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating conclusions
standard a basis for comparison
thermodynamics the science of energy conversion involving heat and other forms of energy
Unit a single undivided whole
vibrations and wave phenomena specific types of repetitive motions like springs, pendulums, and sound
acceleration (physics) a rate of change of velocity
acceleration due to gravity the acceleration of an object in free fall that results from the influence of Earth's gravity
average speed/velocity calculated by (total distance or displacement) / (total time)
constant speed/velocity Occurs when an object moves so that it's instantaneous speed (or velocity) is the same at every instant in it's motion.
convention process by which heat is transferred by movement of a heated fluid such as air or water.
Displacement distance and direction of an object's change in position from the starting point
Distance the property created by the space between two objects or points
Free-fall the motion of a falling object when the only force acting on it is gravity
instantaneous Speed/velocity velocity (or speed) at that instant of time
kinematics the study of motion
one-dimensional motion Movement along only one line (in only one dimension).
scalar a physical quantity that has magnitude but no direction
speed distance travelled per unit time
vector a quantity that has magnitude and direction
velocity speed and direction
frame of reference The perspective from which motion is viewed
projectile an object that is thrown
resolving a vector Breaking a vector into it's components.
resultant A force, velocity, or other vector quantity that is equivalent to the combined effect of two or more component vectors acting at the same point.
action-reaction force pair For every action, there is an equal & opposite reaction.
apparent weightlessness Close to having a weight of zero, but not quite
balanced force two or more forces that are equal and opposite of one another; do not cause change in motion
coefficient of friction Mu
contact force A force between two objects that are touching each other.
Equilibrant a force that places an object in equilibrium; is the same magnitude as the resultant, but in the opposite direction
Equilibrium a stable situation in which forces cancel one another
field force force exerted upon another object without physical contact in an electric field
force physical energy or intensity
free-body diagram displays the forces acting on an object and their vectors
inertia the tendency of an object to resist any change in its motion
kinetic friction the friction an object experiences when it is in motion
mass the amount of space an object consumes, measured in kg, or Newton's.
net force the combination of all forces acting on an object
Newton's First Law of Motion an object in motion will remain in motion unless acted upon by another force
Newton's Second law of Motion F=MA
Newton's Third Law of Motion for every action there is an opposite but equal reaction
Normal Force Pushes up on an object
Static equilibrium the state of an object when all forces acting on it sum to zero.
Static Friction frictional force that prevents two surfaces from sliding past each other
Terminal Velocity the greatest velocity a falling object reaches
True Weightlessness Something that only occurs deep in space, far away from gravitational influences.
Unbalanced force When two forces acting on each other cause an object to move.
Weight the force of gravity on an object

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