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Tenochtitlan

capital city of the Aztec empire, located where Mexico city stands now

Tenochtitlan

population of over 100,000 in 1500

Iroquois Confederation

a group of First Nations/Native Americans that originally consisted of five nations: the Mohawk, the Oneida, the Onondaga, the Cayuga, and the Seneca.

Iroquois Confederation

first emerged in the mid 15th century

Black Death

an epidemic of the bubonic plague

Black Death

began in Constantinople in 1347

Tenochtitlan

larger than any European city at that time

Iroquois Confederation

most elaborately organized group

Black Death

killed more than 1/3 of the people in Europe, took 1 1/2 centuries to recover from

Prince Henry the Navigator

Portuguese prince who thought that explorers could find a shortcut around Africa to Asia

Prince Henry the Navigator

1400's

Prince Henry the Navigator

explored the western coast of Africa and largely helped Portugal become the top maritime power in the 1400's

Amerigo Vespucci

Florentine merchant, member of a Portuguese expedition to the New World

Amerigo Vespucci

1490's to early 1500's

Amerigo Vespucci

First person to realize America was a new continent, America was named after him instead of Columbus

Francisco Pizarro

Spanish explorer who conquered the Incas in what is now Peru

Francisco Pizarro

1532-1538

Francisco Pizarro

revealed to Europe the Inca's wealth and opened the way for more advances into South America

Don Juan de Onate

Spanish conquistador, claimed lands of the Pueblo Indians

Don Juan de Onate

1598-1606

Don Juan de Onate

His harsh treatment of the natives threatened his colony's stability, and was removed from governor in 1606

Pueblo Indians

Indians that lived in present day New Mexico

Pueblo Indians

late 1500's-1600's

Pueblo Indians

"conquered" by Don Juan's party, almost destroyed the Spanish colony in a 1680 revolt, finally permitted by the Spanish to own land and were assimilated

mestizos

A person of mixed Native American and European ancestory

mestizos

1500-1600's

mestizos

an elaborate hierarchy was created because of these; spanish at the top, these in the middle and natives at the bottom

Mali

a large empire in West Africa

Mali

1100-1400's

Mali

its main city, Timbuktu, was known as a center of trading an a seat of education, showing that Africans were not savages like the Europeans thought

John Cabot

an English navigator, native of Genoa like Columbus

John Cabot

sailed to the NE coast of North America in 1497

John Cabot

England's first documented contact with America

enclosures

English landowners evicted their tenants to make a bigger profit off of sheep

enclosures

1516-early 1600's

enclosures

cause a serious problem of over-population and thousands of evicted tenants

merchant capitalists

merchants who believed in Mercantilism

merchant capitalists

1500-1600's

merchant capitalists

helped create a domestic cloth industry that allowed them to market finished goods at home and abroad

Mercantilism

a concept of economic life: increase the nation's wealth by extracting wealth from foreign countries, the world's wealth is finite

Mercantilism

1500-1600's

Mercantilism

enhanced the position of merchant capitalists, these principles guided the economic policies in almost all European nation-states

Huguenots

French protestants, believed everyone's destiny is pre-determined

Huguenots

1520's

Huguenots

an alternative to Catholicism, spread quickly through northern Europe

Separatists

very radical Puritans, determined to worship as they saw fit

Separatists

1550-1600's

Separatists

worshiped unlawfully: England forbid unauthorized religious meetings, they rejected assumptions about the proper religious roles of women

Plantations

transplantations of English society in Ireland

Plantations

1560-1570's

Plantations

They gave the English the assumptions they used to deal with the Native Americans

Coureurs de bois

fur traders and trappers, they penetrated far into the American wilderness

Coureurs de bois

early 1600's, started in 1608

Coureurs de bois

they developed a large trade that became one of the major supports of French colonial economy, helped open the way for more French presence in North America

Sea Dogs

pirates hired by a country to defeat certain ships

Sea Dogs

1570-1580's

Sea Dogs

They built confidence in England's ability to challenge Spain's navy, allowing them to become the top maritime power

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