FUNCTIONS OF REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
(Male & Female)
Produce reproductive cells (i.e., gametes)
Gametes: Sex Cells (Sperm or ovum joining to form an embryo)
Produce sex hormones that influence the structure & function of all other systems
FUNCTIONS OF REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
Nourish, support, & give birth to a human fetus (female only)
BASIC PARTS OF REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
(Male & Female)
1) Gonads (Testes: Male, Ovaries: Female)
2) Reproductive Tract
-series ducts which receive, nourish, store, & transport gametes
3) Accessory Glands (Totally different b/w males and females)
-responsible for the secretion of fluids
4) Perineal Structures (i.e., external genitalia)
-organs of sexual arousal and sexual intercourse
PARTS OF MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
-testes (produce spermatozoa & testosterone)
(The testes are the main producers of sperm)
2) Reproductive Tract (Several Parts)
-epididymis (Mainly a storage unit for sperm)
-ductus/vas deferens (Long tubes that transport sperm to the urethra)
-ejaculatory duct (Short duct: connects the vas deferens to the urethra)
-urethra (Part of both the Urinary AND Reproductive System)
3) Accessory Glands
-seminal glands (Q: 2)
-prostate gland (Q: 1)
-bulbo-urethral glands (Q: 2)
4) External genitalia
PARTS OF FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM :
-ovaries (equivalent to testes) (produce ova(Instead of sperm), estrogen, progesterone, & testosterone) <- Not just testosterone like in Males!
2) Reproductive Tract (Series of hollow tubes)
3) Accessory Glands
-mammary gland (in breast)
-greater vestibular glands (Located near the vagina)
4) External genitalia
-labia minora & majora (Folds of Skin)
NAME THREE STRUCTURES THAT PASS THROUGH THE SPERMATIC CORD
FUNCTION OF THE SPERMATIC CORD
Communication between the tests and the abdomen. It also serves to suspend the testes in the scrotum.
THIS LIGAMENT SERVES AS A DISTINCTION POINT B/W THE PELVIS AND THE LOWER LIMB.
(WHERE THE FEMORAL ARTERY BEGINS)
WHAT IS THE DIVISION POINT BETWEEN THE INTERNAL ORGANS AND THE PERINEAM (EXTERNAL GENITALIA)?
PATH OF THE VAS DEFERENS
Connects all the way from the testes, goes behind the bladder, where it connects directly to the Urethra.
IN A MALE, THE UROGENITAL DIAPHRAGM SITS IN BETWEEN WHAT TWO STRUCTURES?
The Prostate Gland and the Penis
NAME FOR THE CONNECTIVE TISSUE THAT COVERS EACH OF THE TESTES.
(LIKE HEART PERICADIAL LAYERS: CREATES A SEROUS FLUID THAT WILL SURROUND THE TESTES AND LIMIT DAMAGE TO THEM)
DESCRIBE AND NAME THE TWO MAJOR FUNCTIONS OF THE CREMATOR MUSCLE
Skeletal Muscle (Both voluntary and involuntary)
1) Sexual arousal - skeletal contraction will work to move the testis closer to the body, skeletal relaxation with suspend the testis at the lowest possible point away from the testis (Important because this would actively decrease the distance the sperm would have to travel
2) Temperature fluctuations - Sperm thrive in 2 degree Celsius around body temperature. The muscle regulates temperature by shortening (Increases temp or temperature retention ) the testis or lengthening (Decreases temps) the testis
WHICH PLEXUS IS PART OF THE TESTICULAR VEIN AND SURROUNDS THE TESTICULAR ARTERY IN A COMPLEX NETWORK?
Pampiniform Plexus, otherwise known as the "heat sink"
^Something that draws away heat from an object
WHY DOES THE PAMPINIFORM PLEXUS SURROUND THE TESTICULAR ARTERY?
Surrounds the artery so that if there is too much heat in the testis region, the pampiniform plexus will draw blood (a good conductor of heat) away from the testes, drawing away HEAT.
THE TESTES IS COVERED BY BOTH A ________ LAYER AND ________ LAYER OF TUNICA VAGINALIS
IN BETWEEN THE VISCERAL AND PARIETAL TUNICA VAGINALIS IS KNOWN AS WHAT? WHAT DOES IS PRODUCE?
Scrotal cavity which holds the serous fluid (Doesn't allow the testes to rub against a structure and suffer easy abrasion)
UNLIKE THE CREMASTER MUSCLE, THE DARTOS MUSCLE IS COMPLETELY ____&_____.
Involuntary & a layer in the scrotum itself
FUNCTION OF THE DARTOS MUSCLE
Smooth muscle: Completely involuntary
Causes wrinkling of the scrotum itself (Serves for heat regulation)
No wrinkling in the scrotum: Increases the surface area for heat to be released
If too cold: Muscle will contract and cause wrinkling in the scrotal sack to Increase temp (When less surface area is exposed to the air, less heat will be released from the scrotum)
DESCRIBE THE INNERVATIONOF THE SPERMATIC CORD
The genital branch of the GENITOFEMORAL NERVE
This nerve is in charge of both sensory and motor functions.
Sensations: On the scrotum skin
Innervates: The cremaster muscle (Reason this muscle will contract!)
FUNCTION OF THE SUPERFICIAL INGUINAL RING
This is the landmark where the spermatic cord in the inguinal canal exits into the abdominal wall (the anterior muscles that hold organs in place)
THE DEEP INGUINAL RING IS WHERE
all the structures exit the abdomen to get to the superficial inguinal ring.
THE SPACE BETWEEN THE DEEP AND SUPERFICIAL INGUINAL RINGS IS KNOWN AS THE ___________.
NAME THE TWO INGUINAL CANAL RINGS
Rings in the inguinal canal are perforations of that muscle and usually cannot be seen
Deep inguinal ring: Pierces the beginning of the abdominal wall
Superficial inguinal ring: Only thing you can see on a cadaver
DESCENT OF THE TESTES:
DESCRIBE THE GUBERNACULUM TESTIS
A connective tissue that attaches the testis and scrotum together. Inside the womb at two months that testes are inside the abdomen.
4-7 months this tissue will begin to pull down the testis into the scrotum down the abdominal musculature: causing the spermatic cord to form. Never once changing in size!
THE EXTERNAL OBLIQUE EXTERNAL SPERMATIC FASCIA IS?
Connective tissue that surrounds all structures in the scrotum
DESCENT OF THE TESTES
SUBCUTANEOUS ABDOMINAL TISSUE ->
INTERNAL OBLIQUE ->
SUBCUTANEOUS ABDOMINAL TISSUE -> The Dartos Muscle
INTERNAL OBLIQUE -> The Cremator Muscle
DESCRIBE ABDOMINAL HERNIAS
The intestine will come out of some sort of weakening in the abdominal wall. Most common in males!
Why? Males have weakened abdominal areas in the abdominal wall (Inguinal canal because of spermatic cord piercing) where the intestine can pass
TWO TYPES OF INGUINAL HERNIAS
Indirect: A person is born with this. Cause because the inguinal ring will not full close and the intestine will go through the inguinal canal
Direct: Usually with older men due to intense strain. Intestine goes through abdomen and exits through the superficial ring.
LABLE THE PARTS OF THE SCROTUM AND TESTES FROM EXTERNAL TO INTERNAL
Scrotum (Skin > Dartos Muscle > Superficial scrotal fascia) > Cremater Muscle > Tunica Vaginalis (Parietal > Scrotal Cavity > Visceral) > Testis
DESCRIBE THE INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF THE TESTES
The testis contain different LOBULES separated by the septum: SEPTA. Each lobule contains these bunched up SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES which can stretch half a mile long for each testis. These tubules are the producers of sperm. The sperm produced will collect into the RETE TESTIS network in the MEDIASTINUM OF TESTES. This is located in the superior portion of the testis. Functions to pull all the sperm from each of the tubules and collect it though the rete testis. The sperm are then drained through the EFFERENT DUCTULES into the epididymis.
FOR EVERY UNDIFFERENTIATED SEX CELL HOW MANY SPERM WILL BE PRODUCED? HOW DOES THIS CONTRAST WITH FEMALES?
FOUR FUNCTIONAL SPERM
Females only produce one mature haploid gamete
Process where sperm is made functionally mature
1) MOTILITY - In the reproductive tract - During Ejaculation
2) Capable of Fertilizing - Not Capable of this until the sperm come in contact with the acidity in the Vagina (Substances in the Vagina are necessary to complete Capacitation)
PARTS TO A SPERM
Flagellum: (Tail - only example of this in the human body)
Acrosomal cap: (Membrane that protects the nucleus in the head)
Head: Contains the nucleus (Chromosomes)
Contractions in smooth muscle of vas deferens, seminal glands, prostate
Sympathetic nerve control! (Part of the Autonomic NS: Involuntary)
THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE TRACT CAN BE DESCRIBED AS
A series of hollow tubes responsible for the transportation of sperm (pushing sperm outside of the body)
Tube: Made of Smooth muscle
Coiled seminiferous tubules will lead sperm in straight tubules which will exit into the Rete testis in the mediastinum. From there the sperm will empty into the Head of the Epididymis through Efferent ductules. Eventually will travel to the tail of the epididymis, ready for ejaculation:
Vas deferens travels through the Inguinal canal to get to the abdomen where it travels behind the Bladder to connect Excretory Duct into the Ejaculatory Duct and into the Urethra.
What differentiates the Epididymis from the Vas Deferens?
The vas deferens is not coiled like the epididymis. Because it needs to get its substance through fast!
Describe the Epididymis
huge one continuous coiled tube (storage unit for a ton of sperm!) Takes about two weeks for sperm to travel through the Epididymis (This is a constant process)
Head of Epididymis: Pulls sperm away from the testis
Body of Epididymis
Tail of Epididymis: Sperm will eventually go here (at the bottom) ready for ejaculation.
Difference between Vas Deferens and Ureter.
Ureters go into the bladder.
The Vas deferens goes behind the bladder to connect directly to the Ejaculatory duct.
ROLE OF ACCESSORY GLANDS
1) Activate sperm motility
-secrete fluids that allow sperm to swim
-necessary for continued motility & life of sperm (to the egg)
Produce protecting (chemical) buffers
-counteract acidity of male urethra & vaginal contents (disadvantageous environment)
a - Eliminates uric acid in the urethra
b - Counteractive to acidity in vaginal environment
Name the three male accessory glands:
1) Seminal Vesicle/ Gland (Secretes fluid)
2) Prostate Gland
3) Bulbo-urethral gland (Underneath the prostate)
Functions of the male accessory glands
1) Initiate sperm motility (Release Seminal Fluid which contains fructose, a sugar that will give energy and nutrients to the sperm.
2)Secretes a milky white substance (Alkaline - Combats acidity)
3)Secretes the sticky substance well before ejaculation (During male sexual arousal - serves to neutralize uric acid in the urethra. Also helps lubricate the tip of the penis
pushes semen through external urethral orifice. Covers base of the penis. Corpus spongiosum is a type of erectile tissue.
(An already stiff penis) stabilizes penis. Corpus cavernosa is its erectile tissue
Pudendal Nerve and Internal Pudendal Artery and Vein
Innervates and supplies all of the perineal structures
(A male will have two)
Makes up top part of the penis. Main erectile tissue: fills up with blood the most
Bulb of the Penis is part of what erectile tissue?
Corpus Spongiosus and is covered by the Bulbospongiosus muscle.
Crus of the Penis
On the right and left (legs) Attached to the Ischium. The Ischium cavernosus muscle covers this.
Vascular channels separated by elastic connective tissue & smooth muscle
Chambers fill with blood during erection
Behavior of the Corpus spongiosum and cavernosa during an erect penis
The cavernosa expands while the spongiosum enlarges very little. (It cannot enlarge too much because would pinch the urethra shut.
Triggered by parasympathetic nervous system (Involuntary)
Nerves will trigger ->
Vasodilation -Corpora cavernosa (and to lesser extent corpus spongiosum) engorge with blood
Ischiocavernosus & Bulbospongiosus contractions compress veins in the penis & prevent return of blood to the heart (until it needs to get oxygenated.)
Specialized Accessory Organs (Modified Sweat Glands) for Lactation
These are working and functional (Unlike men)
The Breast is made up of
Pectoralis Major Muscle, Adipose Tissue, Suspensory ligaments, Mammary Glands, Lactiferous duct, Lactiferous sinus and the Areola and Nipple
Storage unit for the milk until its time to nurse and will come through the nipple
What is the Labia Minora? Labia Majora?
Minora: Softer, pinker lips in the middle. Wraps around the Vagina
Majora: On the outside: are large (Contain pubic hair)
Some homologous features surrounding male and female genitalia include:
Corpus Cavernosum: Erectile tissue that will fill with blood when aroused
Males (Made up of Corpus Spongiosum underneath the penis)
Females (Vestibular Bulb Flanks the vagina underneath the labia majora - bulges when female is aroused)
Labia majora in females is homologous to what in males?
Homologous to the scrotum in males. (Empty sacs of skin) The ovaries don't fall down like the testes so just empty
The greater vestibular gland in females is homologous to what structure in males?
Homologous to the Bulbourethral glands in Males.
Function of the greater vestibular gland in females
Lubricates the outside area of the lips in Females. Lies right underneath the vestibular bulb.
BULBOSPONGIOSUS MUSCLE in Females
constricts vaginal orifice & assists orgasm
Fits on either side of the Vagina and covers the bulb of the Vestibule when contracted.
contrast: In males it helps push sperm through the Corpus Spongiosum
MUSCLE in Females
maintains clitoral erection.
Homologous to males (Helps maintain erection as well)
Which of these structures is not innervated by the Pudendal Nerve?
b) Vestibular Bulb
c) Greater Vestibular Gland
Unlike the Male, the Broad ligament in the Female Pelvic Cavity
Covers all of the reproductive organs by this thin tissue.
Name the arteries that supply blood to the interior reproductive organs (Female)
Vaginal arteries, Uterine Artery, Internal Iliac Artery and the Ovarian Artery
What differentiates the ovarian artery from the other pelvic female arteries?
It is the only artery that does not come off from the Internal Iliac
FUNCTIONS OF THE UTERUS: Pregnancy
Nutrient support (Main Function)
Labor (expelling mature fetus) (Contractions of the Uterus)
**Menstruation is a by-product of uterine preparation for pregnancy
The Uterine Tube functions to
take ova from the ovaries
Made of Smooth Muscle : Contractions help push the ova (Just like sperm in males!!!)
Connects the Ovaries to the Uterus (Prevents these two structures from coming apart)
Prevents anterior movement by connecting back part of the uterus roots down into the sacrum
Functions in holding sperm (widened near the cervix) until the sperm can swim into the cervix
Round ligament of Uterus
Prevents posterior Movement! by pulling from the front of the uterus.
Goes from the fundus of the uterus through the INGUINAL CANAL and attaches to the labia majora
FUNCTIONS OF THE VAGINA
Passageway for menstrual fluid expulsion
Receives penis during sexual intercourse
Holds sperm before it passes into the uterus
Labor (expelling mature fetus)
**Acidic Environment -> Keeps the vagina from getting infected by killing off foreign substances. This is a hostile environment for sperm. How do sperm avoid this? The seminal fluid + Prostate fluid (Anti-acidic chemicals)
Full capacitation: Breaks down the membrane on the head so that the nucleus can reach and eject in to the egg. takes away the barrier!
With each step one egg will take all of the cytoplasm. Ends up being the ovum. One undifferentiated cell -> on ovum
Ovarian Cycle is divided into two phases:
1) Follicular Phase: 1st half of the ovarian cycle. The follicle will produce estrogen. (Dominated by estrogen)
2) Luteal Phase: Follicle becomes the Corpuse luteum: Secretes progesterone (Important for the maintenance of pregnancy)
What happens when the gal turns out to be NOT pregnant?
Both hormones will drop significantly (Lining that is very vascularized sheds and is known as menstruation)