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otto von bismarck

Chancellor of Prussia from 1862 until 1871, when he became chancellor of Germany. A conservative nationalist, he led Prussia to victory against Austria (1866) and France (1870) and was responsible for the creation of the German Empire (714)

Camillo Cavour

The political mastermind behind all of Sardinia's unification plans, he succeeded in creating a Northern Italian nation state

Giuseppe Mazzini

Italian nationalist whose writings spurred the movement for a unified and independent Italy (1805-1872) founded young Italy

Giuseppe Garibaldi

Italian patriot whose conquest of Sicily and Naples led to the formation of the Italian state (1807-1882)

Red Shirts

Garibaldi's army of 1000 red-shirted volunteers

Young Italy

(1830) secret society, goal was a free and united Italy, founded by Mazzini

Prussia

a former kingdom in north-central Europe including present-day northern Germany and northern Poland

Sardinia

an island in the Mediterranean west of Italy

Real politiks

Realistic politics based on the needs of the state in this case power was more important than principles

blood and iron

policy of German unification put forth by Bismarck; belief that industry & war would unify Germany

Kaiser Wilhelm II

was the Kaiser of Germany at the time of the First World War reigning from 1888-1918. He pushed for a more aggressive foreign policy by means of colonies and a strong navy to compete with Britain. His actions added to the growing tensions in pre-1914 Europe.

Iron Chancellor

Bismarck's nickname, from is statement that he would unite Germany by "blood and iron"

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