Open Field System
a communal set of fields, which would be cultivated by multiple farmers. These fields were divided into sections, intended to allow one to farm an equal share of land to everyone else
the part of the field (in an open field system) which wasn't farmed—it was just land that wasn't cultivated in order to rest the soil, and to regain its nutrients.
open meadows that villages maintained for hay and natural pasture
as opposed to farmers cooperating and working the land together, in this system a farmer was given his own land to do with as he pleased; here the landlord had a much larger portion of land and the farmer was given a smaller "enclosed" individual section. THIS WAS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE IN THE SHORT RUN, DUE TO SOME FARMERS HAVING TROUBLE PRODUCING ENOUGH GOODS AND EVENTUALLY BEING FORCED TO SELL THEIR LAND, IT WAS A DISASTER. HOWEVER, EVENTUALLY MORE EFFICIENT METHODS OF FARMING BEGAN TO BE USED.
a very important propagandist in the agricultural revolution; he wrote a very important farmer's manual. HE IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE HIS PROPAGANDA WAS KEY IN THE PROGRESS OF THE AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION.
a pioneer in animal breeding—meatier pigs, cows, etc.
famous politician who's brother was the first prime-minister of England; He was sent to the Netherlands and became very impressed with Dutch agriculture, then began using the methods he learned in England; became so obsessed with agriculture that he eventually became known as "Turnip Townshend". SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE HE WAS A KEY TRANSITION FIGURE IN THE ENGLISH AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION.
transformation of large numbers of small peasant farmers into landless rural wage earners.
In this, people were able to set up their own manufacturing system in their own home.
this consisted of a wealthy merchant coming to the countryside and hiring a cottage industry to create their needed product. The merchant would provide the cottage industry with the raw resources they were to manufacture, and then gave them a small share of the money made from the sale of the products. THIS IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE IT IS A PRECURSOR TO FACTORIES.
invented a more efficient loom in 1733—the "Flying Shuttle." With this, one hand could be used to weave (this was much faster). However, this was so fast that people couldn't keep up their spinning with their weaving. THIS IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE IT LED TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE "WATER FRAME."
invented the "Spinning Jenny", which was more efficient than the Flying Shuttle, and could be used by people effectively.
developed the "Water Frame," which was a big machine that ran on water and could create many threads simultaneously. Even though he received to prize for the fastest spinning machine, it was of huge significance. ITS SIGNIFICANCE IS THAT BECAUSE IT'S SO EXPENSIVE, WORKERS COULDN'T HAVE ONE OF THEIR OWN. SO, WEALTHY PEOPLE BEGAN BUYING AND INVESTING IN THEM. THIS IS THE SEPARATION BETWEEN CAPITAL AND LABOR. IT MADE FACTORIES POSSIBLE.
These were groups that monopolized and regulated the production of a product. The development of the cottage industry was a heavy blow to many of these groups. The enlightenment was also opposed to them because, as was their essence, they demanded conformity of goods to maintain their standards.THIS IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE THEY DEMANDED DISCIPLINE AND UNIFORMITY IN THE MANUFACTURING OF GOODS.
Treaty of Paris
ended the Seven Years War in 1763. In it, the British gained the colonies in North America. THIS IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE BRITAIN WAS ABLE TO MONOPOLIZE A GREATER TRADING EMPIRE DUE TO THIS.
Christian group strongly opposed to slavery. Due to the fact that they were all about getting into heaven, they wanted slave owners to quit their business because they were sinning by having slaves.
People of Spanish blood, born in America. THEY ARE SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE THEY HELPED REVIVE SPAIN. ONE WAY THIS WAS DONE WAS BY ENTERING THE SPANISH COLONIES INTO THE ATLANTIC ECONOMY.
The offspring of Spanish men and Indian women.
Under this system, a planter or rancher would keep the estate's Christianized, increasingly Hispanicized Indians in perpetual debt bondage by advancing food, shelter, and a little money. This was a form of serfdom.
a family that consists of a set of two parents and their children, who all share a household.
these were the societal pressures within a community of what actions should be taken in a multitude of circumstances--i.e premarital sex. THIS IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE THESE HELPED PREVENT PREMARITAL SEX, AND THUS THE AMOUNT OF ILLEGITIMATE CHILDREN.
A period between 1750-1850 in which the number of illegitimate births soared. SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE IT REPRESENTED A CULTURAL REVOLUTION IN WHICH PEOPLE'S OUTLOOKS ON PREMARITAL SEX. AS WELL AS THIS, IT SHOWED THE TRANSITION OF ATTITUDES TOWARDS SEX AS YOUNG PEOPLE MOVED INTO CITIES, NO LONGER HAVING TO WAIT ON INHERITANCE OF LAND TO HAVE FAMILIES.
many parents, or at least those who could afford it, would often send their children to a ____ ______, who would nurse and care for the children for up to two years.
this sometimes occurred after unwanted pregnancies, due to the fact that abortions were illegal.
Although these weren't godsends—sickness was rampant in these, many abandoned children were able to find some safety in these. ______s were also donated to quite frequently. THIS IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE THE FOUNDLINGS WERE THE MORE HUMANE WAY OF GETTING RID OF UNWANTED CHILDREN IN THE 18TH CENTURY.
these small pamphlets became very popular, including bible stories, lessons on ethics, etc.
a very popular form of reading. These contained lots of information about crops, seasons, and other tidbits of knowledge. THESE WERE SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE THEY WERE SOME OF THE ONLY READINGS THAT WERE READ ACROSS THE CLASS SPECTRUM.
Wrote the pamphlet "Common Sense," in 1776. It attacked the evils of government against the natural society of men. It justified the American Revolution. THIS IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE IT SHOWED THAT WORKING PEOPLE COULD ASSIMILATE IDEAS AND INFORMATION FROM THE UPPER CLASSES ABOUT THE ENLIGHTENMENT.
in this process, one would be bled, due to the belief that there was an imbalance in one of the bodily fluids. This doesn't seem like it would've been used for very long, but it was because after one was bled, they felt light-headed, and thus, temporarily "better."
this person would deliver babies. Their use was quite common for those who couldn't afford more expensive medical care.
a Christian movement that originated in Germany. Its three beliefs were: ENTHUSIASM (people should be excited about religion, the service, etc.), RELIGION IS A PRIESTHOOD OF ALL BELIEVERS (we are all the church, so decisions like choosing a preacher were carried out by the entire congregation), THE ABILITY OF REBIRTH (people could be "saved" or anyone can attain salvation, if they chose to believe. This was the total opposite of predestination). IT IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE IT INFLUENCED JOHN WESLEY, THE CREATOR OF METHODISM
the founder of METHODISM (or what was to become Methodism). He came from a long line of ministers, an when he went to Oxford University to prepare for the clergy, he mapped a fanatically earnest "scheme of religion." After becoming a teaching fellow at Oxford, he organized a Holy Club for similarly minded students—soon to become known as METHODISTS. HE IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE HIS RENEWED APPROACH TO CHRISTIANITY GAVE WAY TO THE FOUNDING OF A NEW SECT OF CHRISTIANITY.
this French Christian movement believed in the power of original sin and predestination. In many ways, it was the Catholic version of Calvinism. Like the Calvinists, the built their own communities, many of which were persecuted by the Catholic Church. The emotional quality of this movement became so powerful that there were ________ sects that spoke in tongues during services. SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE ITS STERN RELIGIOUS VALUES THAT WERE UPHELD BY MANY JUDICIAL NOBLES LEAD TO INCREASING OPPOSITION TO THE MONARCHY FROM THE JUDICIARIES IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE 18TH CENTURY
Came before lent. Essentially a big fair that everyone looked forward to!
French clergyman who wrote "What Is The Third Estate," in which he stated that individual effort and public functions will allow a state to prosper. He says that these productive activities are(and these are all the 3rd estate): agriculture, manufacturing products, trade, professional lawyers/doctors; He also says that aristocracy dominating public offices was unfair and not at all efficient. This is so because all the hard work is done by the third estate, thus they should be in charge of the formal offices as well—the aristocracy having control over those who do all the work is unfair. THIS WORK IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE IT BECAME A BEST SELLER, SHOWING THE PUBLIC OPINION OF THE TIME.
Duke of Orleans
Louis XV's uncle and regent for the formative years of Louis' life; He brought back institutions that had lost power during the reign of Louis XIV. The most important of these were the "Parlements. HE IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE HE SANCTIONED A COUNTER-WEIGHT TO ABSOLUTE POWER.
Rene de Maupeou
Appointed as the new finance minister by Louis XV in 1768. His goal was to tax the nobles and the Parlements seemed to consist of the main nobles resisting these new taxes. He knew he couldn't get rid of them, so he just decided to but them on "permanent vacation." He creates new parlements called __________ parlements.Once these are in place, he establishes taxation over the nobles as well as everyone else. The public went beserk, but _________ and Louis XV stood firm. The attacks on the monarchy do take a large toll though. HE IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE HE BROUGHT FRANCE'S FISCAL PROBLEMS UNDER CONTROL.
Desacralization of the Monarchy
this was the time in which people were no longer viewing the king as a sacred ruler, or the position of king as a sacred institution. Personal attacks on Louis XV, his court, his wife, and his mistresses became quite frequent. As these personal attacks increase, Louis XV loses much of his sanctity, and thus, a lot of the power he could exert over the people of France. SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE THESE BROUGHT DOWN THE POWER OF THE MONARCHY.
king of France from 1774-1792. His main goal was to gain the approval of as many people as possible, so he got rid of Maupeou(thus, getting rid of taxation of the nobles), and brought back the pre-Maupeou Parlement. SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE HE LED FRANCE TO A RENEWED FINANCIAL CRISIS AND POLITICAL UPHEAVAL.
Assembly of the Notables
called by Louis XVI's minister of finance, Calonne, in order to help administer taxes. It contained noblemen and high ranking clergy who opposed the new tax proposals unless they were able to control all of the government's spending. THIS IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE IT LEADS TO THE CALLING OF THE ESTATES GENERAL DUE TO THE FACT THAT THIS _______ __ __ ________ DOES NOT HAVE THE AUTHORITY TO MAKE DECISIONS ABOUT TAXES, ULTIMATELY LEADING TO THE FRENCH REVOLUTION.
petitions of grievances
Oath of the Tennis Court
on June 20 1789 where the delegates of the Third Estate went to a large Tennis Court and pledged not to disband until a new constitution was formed. THIS IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE IT WAS THE MOMENT WHERE THE THIRD ESTATE BEGAN TO TAKE CONTROL OF FRANCE, AS WELL AS MARKING THE BEGINNING OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. EVENTUALLY IT LEAD TO A CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY IN FRANCE.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
Issued by the National Assembly which states the rights of people in France: innocence until one is proven guilty, freedom from oppression, free speech, etc. This was the framework that many of the educated elites had embraced. THIS IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE IT SPREAD THROUGHOUT THE WESTERN WORLD AND SHOWED THE FALL OF THE REGIME.
March of the Fish Wives
After what was basically a depression in Paris, this was the march of hungry people who walked from a Paris fish Markey to Versailles. This started out peacefully, intending only to let the king know what was going on, but they grew increasingly agitated as the march drew on. After they'd finished the 15 mile journey to Versailles, they were furious! So they invade the National Assembly with pikes, scythes, etc! They slaughtered the swiss guards, and try to get at Marie Antoinette! But eventually, they are stopped by LaFayette, who says he'll take the royal family back to Paris if they are spared. However, this changes the dynamics of the revolution because now the royal family was essentially Paris's hostage. SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE IT EVENTUALLY LED TO A CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY.
the paper currency created after many monastic lands were confiscated(these lands backed the currency, and gave it its value). SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE THEY GOT RID OF FRANCE'S MASSIVE DEBT.
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
a law passed which said that the state was to take over the education of priests, and demanded that every priest and clergyman take an oath of loyalty to the state. Those who didn't will be excommunicated.
Irishman who went to England and became a great intellectual. Wrote the "Reflections of the Revolution in France," which was published as the revolution was heating up. He was a supporter of the American revolution, but not of the French revolution because it was doing away with French traditions. As a conservative, he was very concerned with maintaining tradition. HE IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE HE WORKS SPARKED A GREAT DEAL OF DEBATE.
Reflections on the Revolution in France
Written by Edmund Burke, and is one of the great defenses of European conservatism. This book defended inherited privileges in general and those of the English monarchy and aristocracy. It also glorified the unrepresentative Parliament and predicted that thoroughgoing reform like that occurring in France would lead only to chaos and tyranny. THIS IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE IT SPARKED A GREAT DEAL OF DEBATE, AND NEW THINKING.
Vindication of the Rights of Woman
written by Mary Wollstonecraft in 1792. It said that woman are equal to men in many respects, such as business or politics. THIS IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE IT MARKED THE BEGINNING OF THE FEMINIST MOVEMENT.
Olympe de Gouges
a french self-taught writer, and woman of the people. Her writings parallelled the ideas of Mary Wollstonecraft. SHE IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE SHE ALSO HELPED SPUR ON THE BEGINNINGS OF THE FEMINIST MOVEMENT.
Declaration of Pillnitz
issued in Austria in 1791 warning the French that if any harm came to the royal family, then multiple foreign powers will intervene. THIS IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE IT CREATES A SURGE OF PATRIOTISM IN THE FRENCH WHEN THEY FEEL THAT NO ONE SHOULD CONTROL THEIR ACTIONS BUT THEMSELVES.
their name meaning, "Without breeches," these were laboring poor and petty traders. They wore trousers, rather than breeches--a sign of the upper class. They marched on Versailles, drove the king from the Tuileries, carried out the September massacres, etc. THEY ARE SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE THEY PUSHED THE REVOLUTION IN A MORE RADICAL DIRECTION.
the assembly called after the attack of Tuileries in 1792. The members were mostly from the Jacobin club of Paris. They were divided into two groups: The Girondists and the Mountain. THIS IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE IT WAS THEM WHO DECLARED FRANCE A REPUBLIC.
occurred in 1792 when the Sans-Culottes heard that imprisoned counter-revolutionary aristocrats and priests were plotting with allied invaders. The sans-culottes responded by invading one such prison and killing half the men and women there.
members of the National convention led by Robespierre and Danton. They were radical in that they wanted to mobilize every aspect of France for war. When they defeated their rivals the Girondists, they gained control over France in 1793. They appointed the Committee of Public Safety to handle the emergency affairs. SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE THEY BEGAN THE REIGN OF TERROR, WHICH SUCCESSFULLY WARDED OFF INVADERS, AND CREATED A STRONG SENSE OF NATIONALISM.
Committee of Public Safety
appointed by the National convention with leader Robespierre. Their one year rule becomes known as "The Reign of Terror." Their main goals were to maintain the revolution and make progress. THIS IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE THIS TOTAL WAR WAS SUCCESSFUL IN GETTING RID OF INVADERS AND ANYONE AGAINST THE REVOLUTION. NATIONALISM AND PATRIOTISM ALSO GROW AS A RESULT.
Reign of Terror
the rule of the Committee of Public Safety from 1793-1794. During this time, anyone who was deemed as partaking in "Traitor-like" activities was executed--be it by guillotine, shot, drowned, etc. This reign ended when the leader of the Committee of Public Safety, Robespierre, was executed by Guillotine. SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE IT WAS SUCCESSFUL IN WARDING OFF INVADERS, AND SCARING PEOPLE INTO SUPPORT OF THE REVOLUTION.
Began in the Netherlands in the 1650's and was a huge development in agriculture after the use of the open-field system. By the use of draining many marsh lands and swamps, the fallow was done away with, and more land could be used and cultivated. After the immediate bad effects of Enclosure, eventually, better and more efficient farming techniques began to be used. THIS IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE FARMERS WERE ABLE TO PRODUCE MORE FOOD AND WEALTH, WHICH BETTERED SOCIETY.
A Dutch engineer who was in charge of the drainage of several marshes/swamps in Yorkshire and Cambridgeshire (England). HE IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE HIS DRAINAGE PROJECT LED TO THOUSANDS OF ACRES OF VERY FERTILE FARMLAND BEING REVEALED, AND THUS COULD BE USED.
Madame de Pompadour
the daughter of a disgraced Bourgeois financer and the mistress of Louis XV. She exercised influence over literature, art, and decorative arts. Even after her affair with Louis XV ended, she remained very influential on him, even bringing about a later alliance with Austria. SHE IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE DUE TO HER LOWER CLASS, SHE BROUGHT LOUIS A SIGNIFICANT AMOUNT OF PUBLIC DISAPPROVAL.
Boston Tea Party
Occurred in 1773 when American colonist dressed up as Native Americans and threw tea into the Boston Harbor because the British had given the East India Company a monopoly over the tea that used to be for the merchants in America. THIS IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE IT LED TO THE BRITISH PASSING THE COERCIVE ACTS.
Passed by Britain after the Boston Tea Party. It closed the port of Boston and got rid of the constitution of Massachusetts. THIS IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE IT RESULTED IN THE FIGHTING OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION.
Declaration of Independence
Created during the 2nd Continental Congress on July 4th, 1776 by Thomas Jefferson. It listed the tyrannical acts of the king of Britian, George III. It also proclaimed the natural rights of man: all men are created equal and have the right of life, liberty, and pursuit of happiness. THIS IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE IT DECLARED THE COLONISTS WANT FOR COMPLETE INDEPENDENCE FROM BRITAIN.
Fought between 1775-1783 between the American Colonists and Britain. It occurred after the Colonists felt they shouldn't be taxed whatsover because they weren't being "represented" in the British government. "No taxation without representation." THIS IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE IT HAD A PROFOUND IMPACT ON THE EUROPEAN MINDSET AND CAUSED MORE DEBT FOR THE FRENCH, LEADING TO THE FRENCH REVOLUTION.
a medieval fortress that acted as a prison in France. On July 14 1789, a mob of people who wanted fairly priced bread attacked the fortress, demanding the guards surrender, etc. THIS IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE IT SYMBOLIZED THE POWER OF THE THIRD ESTATE.
this was where the peasants stopped accepting feudal obligations after several bad harvests. They wanted an end to their hard labor, and suffering. THIS IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE THEIR CHAOS PRESSURED THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY TO END MANORIAL RIGHTS AND FEUDALISM.
also known as "Code noir," this granted free people of color the same legal status as whites. These rights were taken away by the 1760's though. THIS IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE THE FREE COLOREDS WERE EXPECTING THESE RIGHTS. WHEN THEY DIDN'T RECEIVE THEM, THEY REBELLED(I.E SAINT-DOMINGUE)
a free man of color who raised an army in Saint-Domingue to demand the same political rights as everyone else. After a few victories, he was defeated and executed. HE IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE HE BEGAN THE VIOLENCE BETWEEN WHITES AND FREE COLOREDS.
The period during the late 17th and early 18th centuries when everyone in the family left the house and worked for a wage. THIS IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE AS WOMEN AND CHILDREN WERE ENTERING THE WORKFORCE, THIS SERVED AS A PRECURSOR TO THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION.
British Chief minister who used superior sea power to destroy the French fleet and choke off French commerce around the world. He later laid siege to Quebec, finally winning it in a battle in 1759. HE IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE HE SEALED THE FATE OF FRANCE IN NORTH AMERICA.
Lady Mary Wortley Montagu
A woman who's beauty had been marred by smallpox, she learned methods of smallpox inoculation from the Turks and brought them to England. Her idea was to give a person small pox by use of the puss of a small pox pustule, so that they'd build an immunity to it. This was very dangerous though, as the person would become temporarily infectious. SHE IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE SHE INITIATED THE EXPERIMENTATION OF SMALLPOX WITH IMMUNE PEOPLE.
Country doctor who collected data on smallpox defense by means of cowpox. After finding that this method of ridding someone of smallpox was successful, he published his findings in 1798. He was then rewarded by the British government for his work. HE IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE HE LAID THE FOUNDATION FOR IMMUNOLOGY, AND CURED SMALL POX.
Treaty of Luneville
between Napoleon and Austria in 1801. In this, Austria accepted its loss of almost all its Italian possessions and German territory on the west bank of the Rhine. THIS IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE IT REPRESENTED NAPOLEON'S DECISIVE VICTORY OVER AUSTRIA.
Treaty of Amiens
Between Britain and Napoleon in 1802. In this, France won control of the Netherlands, German territory up to the Rhine, and large portions of Italy. THIS IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE IT WAS A DIPLOMATIC VICTORY FOR NAPOLEON, AND THIS PEACE THAT CAME WITH HONOR AND PROFIT MADE HIM MORE POPULAR IN FRANCE.
A freed slave who was the leader of a slave revolt in Saint Domingue. HE IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE HIS REVOLT CAUSED THE COMMITTEE OF PUBLIC SAFETY TO ABOLISH SLAVERY.
a tablet discovered by scholars taken on Napoleon's conquest of Egypt. IT IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE IT CONTAINED TWO TYPES OF GREEK WHICH TOLD HOW TO READ HIEROGLYPHS.
Concordat of 1801
an agreement that Napoleon made with Pope Pius 7th that said that Catholics could practice as they wished, but Napoleon gets control of the church in France. THIS IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE IT ENDS THE RIFT IN THE CATHOLIC CHURCH IN FRANCE, RIDDING THE COUNTRY OF MUCH RELIGIOUS CONFUSION AND TURMOIL
Here, Britain decimated the French and Spanish navies, although the British leader, Nelson, is killed. THIS IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE IT BASICALLY MADE BRITAIN INVULNERABLE IN TERMS OF THEIR NAVY.
Battle of Austerlitz
In 1805, Napoleon won this crushing victory over the Austrians and Russians. Soon afterwards, the Russians seek peace. THIS IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE IT LEADS UP TO ALEXANDER I OF RUSSIA ACCEPTING NAPOLEON'S DOMINATION OF WESTERN AND CENTRAL EUROPE.
Civil Code of 1804
Decreed by Napoleon; gave equality under the law, as well as equal opportunities. THIS IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE IT WAS AN OBVIOUSLY ENLIGHTENMENT INFLUENCED POLICY IN NAPOLEON'S RULE.
Created by Napoleon; made credit more available, the possibility of paper currency available, as well as being an all around more flexible monetary system. THIS WAS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE IT BENEFITED THE FRENCH BUSINESS COMMUNITY GREATLY, AS WELL AS BEING AN OBVIOUS ENLIGHTENMENT POLICY.