Key Ideas and values of Philosophes & others

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Fontenelle

used his vast knowledge on science of the past and present to communicate this information in a witty, clear way to upper-class audiences --- hence, science became part of literature (not just limited to the experts and their jargin) --- also downplayed religion thus contributing to skepticism

Pierre Bayle

attacked superstitution, dogmatism, and religious intolerance (his view - trying to get people to believe in particular set of religious ideas = wrong) in his Dictionary, attacked religious heroes like David (portraying him as a lowly evil worm)

James Cook

contributed to the Enlightenment in his Travels, account of journey where he discovered Tahiti, New Zealand, and Australia (this brought the "natural men"/"noble savages" to the attention of the Europeans)

Montesquieu

he critisized French institutions; did not support - traditional religion, slavery; did support - religious toleration, use of reason; distinguished 3 basic gov'ts (republics, monarchies, depotism) and we see the development of separation of powers (i.e. checks and balances)

Voltaire

supported: England, religious toleration (cool quote bottom page 514), Deism (God as the Clockmaker - world runs according to natural laws); didn't support: traditional religion ("religious fanatisism"), ills oppressing France

Diderot

The Great Editor of this time period -- compiled all the worthy important thoughts of the philosophes into his Encyclopedia (almost was censored but he got by w/ a little help from Madame Pompadour) thus changing the general way of thinking

David Hume

rationalist -- he supported deductive reasoning, said that the only miracle was that people still believed in miracles (ouch) -- a Diest view

Francois Quesnay

leader of the Physiocrats (economists of the era), believes land = sole source of wealth -- supported laissez-faire (people should pursue own economic interests)

Adam Smith

economist ; condemned tariffs (free trade is good), said labor = sole source of wealth, and believed there was a natural order to the economy (forced by the "Invisible Hand of the Market Place") and 2 natural laws of this order = 1) law of supply & demand, 2) law of competition --- basically preaching ANTI-MERCANTILISM - this = the birth of modern capitalism -- supported laissez-faire - the more gov't involvement the more chaos

Holbach

First Modern Atheist -- there is no God, now let's move on...also was a materialist, believing that everything in the world is made up of matter - humans - simple machines (no such thing as "soul"), God = figment of human imagination, chemical reactions create thoughts

Condorcet

humans have progressed through 9 stages of history and now that we're finally getting rid of limitations (i.e. religion and the estate system), we can use reason and spread of science to enter 10th stage in history - a stage of perfection (ironic, seeing as he rots away in jail and dies...)

Rousseau

state of nature = humans happy & at peace; three lies: 1) private property 2) gov't ("evil but necessary" -- created to protect supposed private property) 3) religion (added to society so humans can have value); developed the general will; "Father of Field Trips" b/c only way you can learn = experience (opposite of Locke); on women -- men belong in the dominant sphere and women in the domestic (submissive, inferior) sphere, if a woman should try to advance herself, she will disrupt the natural order of society and create chaos; also was father of Romanticism

Edward Gibbon

growth of Christianity = major reason for Rome's eventual collapse (bias POV)

Beccaria

opposed overuse of capital punishment (the death penalty) -- punishments should only be used as deterrents, not acts of brutality

Mary Astell

a modernist in believing that through education, women can advance themselves, also argued for equality of sexes in marriage

Mary Wollstonecraft

builds upon Astell's Serious Proposal: economic and political freedoms would follow after education, attacks false premises of Rousseau, 2 contradictions: 1) "women must obey men" - ironic, since this is being said by same people who believed that system of arbitrary powers of monarchs over subjects/slaveowners over slaves = wrong 2) "subjection of women to men" - Enlightenment = based on ideal that reason is innate in all human beings, so if women have reason, they're entitled to same rights as men

Antoine Watteau

Rococo artist who portrayed the aristocracy having fun

Balthasar Neumann

one of the greatest architects of the 18th century (Rococo)

Jacques-Louis David

Neoclassical artist who focused on honor, patriotism, and virtue

Bach

Baroque musician -- "religion is above all a means of worship to God"

Handel

Baroque musician -- stormy international career and profoundly secular in temperament, yet is ironically best known fo his religious music (Messiah)

Haydn

spent most of adult life as musical director for wealthy Hungarian princes, then went to England where is introduced to musicians who wrote for the public, not patrons, and this "liberty" induced him to dedicate some new music to the common people; incredibly prolific (wrote 104 symphonies)

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

a child prodigy who started great and then "fizzled out," unable to find patrons to work for, and eventually died a pauper at just 35

Count Nikolaus von Zinzendorf

spread the teachings of Pietism; he and his Moravian Brethren illustrated a reaction to the overuse of rationalism during this period; supported mysticism "He who wishes to comprehend God with his mind becomes an atheist."

John Wesley

originally an ordained Anglican minister, he went through a mystical experience which ultimatlely led to the creation of Methodism; his revivalism was a mass movement which embraced religion in this Age of Reason - Grace of God, mercy, etc.

Therese de Geoffrin

salon hostess who convinced Louis XV to allow for the publication of (and non-censorship of) Diderot's Encyclopedia

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