scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment
a group of organisms so similar to one another that they can breed and produce fertile offspring
Evenly spaced--happens from territoriality, species become competitive, uncommon.
When individuals are attracted to a certain key factor and is when individuals are independent of everyone else, uncommon.
growth pattern in which the individuals in a population reproduce at a constant rate, ex: humans. Curve is J shaped. There are unlimited resources.
growth pattern in which a population's growth rate slows or stops following a period of exponential growth. S shaped curve.
Largest amount of a population that can be supported by an area. Represented by variable K.
R Selected Population
high death rate, reproduce quickly, unlimited resources, short life span, numerous offspring, no parental care. Exponential. Density Independent
K Selected Population
low death rate, few vital offspring survive, maximum population size, long life span, off spring are large, compete for resources, density dependent
Type I Survivorship
Humans, they have few offspring, good parental care, and live between 0-60 years. K Selected.
Type II Survivorship
Squirrels and song birds, they have medium "litter" offspring, short span parental care, constant death rate. Neither K selected or R selected.
Type III Survivorship
Oysters, they have large offspring, no parental care, and they die after birth, R selected.
big-bang reproduction-- produce a lot of offsprings all at once and hope they survive. Ex: agaves century plants and oysters
An organism's allocation of its limited energy or other resources to one structure or function at the expense of another.
factor that impacts populatios more when density is high. controls include: disease, parasitism, competition for resources, territoriality, toxic metabolic wastes, and predation.
factors that limit populations but are unrelated to population density , ie hurricane, flood, fires, pesticides
Prey and Predator relationship
If the prey population increases, the predator population increases as well since it depends on it for food.
A group of populations that inhibit a particular area. The study of a whole array of interacting species.
Living together, the relation between two different species of organisms that are interdependent
one species benefits and the other is neither harmed nor benefitted (+/0) ex: barnacles on a whale.
One organism kills the other. This keeps the prey population from exceeding the carrying capacity.
Two or more individual organisms of a single species (intraspecific competition) or two or more individuals of different species (interspecific competition) attempting to use the same scarce resources in the same ecosystem. (-/-)
Conspicuous patterns and colors that predators learn to recognize as: "Avoid me!"
A type of mimicry in which a harmless species looks like a species that is poisonous or otherwise harmful to predators.
when two or more poisonous species resemble each other and gain an advantage from their combined numbers
2 species evolve different behaviors or morphological traits that allow them to use a resource in different ways-->less competition, divide their niche
species with similar niches can coexist without interspecific competition as long as they differ in
1) horizontal or vertical position (habitat)
2)temporal relations (time they are up, noct/diurnal)
3)stage of development
species whose role in an ecosystem in an ecosystem is more important than others, such as a sea otter, sea stars, grizzly bear, prairie dogs. (Sea stars keep mussels under control. The removal of it decreases diversity.)
theory that, as species richness increases in an isolated habitat, immigration decreases and extinction increases to maintain equilibrium of species
simple model that shows how matter and energy move through an ecosystem (example: plankton -->minnow -->fish --> shark)
more complex, interrelationships among various organisms at each trophic level. ex. bears eat berries (pp) and mammals(con).
a diagram that shows the amount of energy that moves from one feeding level to another in a food web
Energy line up
primary producer (100%), Primary consumer (10%), Secondary Consumer (1%), Tertiary Consumer (.1%), Quaternary (.001%) energy.
Net primary production
the amount of vegetation added to ecosystem, Biomass per unity area per unit time (NPP-R)
oxygen released into the water by photosynthesis. Sources: Diffusion and Photosynthesis. Sink: Cellular respiration. Solubility: Temperature (Cold>Hot), Salinity (Fresh>Salt), Altitude (Sea>High), Depth (Shallow>Deep)
Evaporation of liquid water by solar energy, condensation of water vapor into clouds, and precipitation. Transpiration by plants. Runoff +Groundwater return water to ocean (resettle)
CO2 reservoir is from fossil fuels. CO2 goes into atmosphere, reduced by photosynthesis, decomposed detritus and C-compounds in water & cellular respiration return it to atmosphere
the continuous sequence of events by which atmospheric nitrogen and nitrogenous compounds in the soil are converted, as by nitrification and nitrogen fixation, into substances that can be utilized by green plants, the substances returning to the air and soil as a result of the decay of the plants and denitrification.
the movement of Phosphates in the atmosphere; where phosphate runs off rocks and is absorbed in soil. Plants then dissolve this and herbivores obtain Phosphorus by eating the plants, and the carnivores by eating the herbivores. Phosphorus is excreted as feces and urine from animals and returns in decomposition of animals.