Eukaryotic Cell Parts and Functions

33 terms by LAMoore

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cell

basic unit of life

tissue

group of cells that carries out a specific function

cytoplasm

region of eukaryotic cell outside the nucleus

chlorophyll

green pigment in chloroplasts; important in photosynthesis; cytoplasm of plant cells

plasma/cell membrane

regulates what enters and leaves a cell

ribosome

cytoplasm of plant and animal cells; site of protein synthesis

organelles

cell parts that carry out specific activities of a cell

eukaryote/eukaryotic

cells with membrane-bound nucleus

nucleus

region of eukaryotic cells that controls activities of cells; contains chromosomes (DNA) and nucleolus; filled with nucleoplasm

cytoskeleton

keeps cell from collapsing

plastids

structures in the cytoplasm of plant cells that contain pigments (chloroplasts, amyloplasts, chromoplasts)

phospholipid bilayer

term used to describe the molecular structure of the cell/plasma membrane; both plant and animal cells

centriole

found in the cytoplasm of animals cells; important in cell division; made of microtubles

organ

group of tissues performing a particular function

nucleolus

nucleus of both plant and animal cells; produces the nucleic acid RNA that forms the ribosomes

microtubules

cytoplasm of plant and animal cells; part of cytoskeleton that acts like a track for moving materials around in cells and are important in maintaining a cells' shape

chromosome

in the nucleus of both plant and animal cells; location of DNA (hereditary material)

endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

extensive system of internal membranes in the cytoplasm of plant and animal cells for moving proteins and other substances through the cell

nucleoplasm

jelly-like liquid in the nucleus

Golgi apparatus

in the cytoplasm of both plant and animal cells; packages and distributes materials produced in the cell

lysosomes

in the cytoplasm of both plant and animal cells; vesicles that contain digestive enzymes for disposing of unwanted materials and structures

vesicles

containers, vessels for chemicals so they are not free in the cytoplasm of cells

mitochondria

organelles in the cytoplasm of both plant and animal cells that transfer energy from glucose to ATP; have their own DNA

chloroplasts

plastids that contain the green pigment chlorophyll; have their own DNA

central vacuole

structure in the cytoplasm of plant cells that stores water and may also contain enzymes and wastes

nuclear envelope/membrane

double membrane with pores that separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells

microfilaments

in the cytoplasm of both plant and animal cells; made of actin; part of cytoskeleton; important in cell movement (ex, white blood cells)

organ system

groups of organs performing related tasks (digestive, circulatory, skeletal, etc)

cell wall

rigid outer covering of plant cells for support and protection from injury and dehydration; surrounds the cell/plasma membrane

autophagy

A process in which lysosomes decompose damaged organelles to reuse their organic monomers

autolysis

digestion of cells or tissues by the cell's own enzymes

rough ER

ER dotted with ribosomes; produce protein for export (digestive enzymes, ex); abundant in most cells

smooth ER

ER that lacks ribosomes; produces hormones and chloesterol; detoxifies drugs and poisons in liver and kidney; contraction of heart

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