Peritoneal Cavity and Intestines

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Anatomy Terms for U of Cincinnati

Parietal Peritoneum

Lines inner surfaces of the abdominal and pelvic walls

Visceral Peritoneum

Covers the surfaces of the abdominal and pelvic organs

Peritoneal Cavity

Potential space between the two types of peritoneum

Intraperitoneal Organs

Stomach, Small Intestine, Liver, and Spleen

Retroperitoneal Organs

Ureterus, Suprarenal Glands, and Kidneys

Secondarily Retroperitoneal Organs

Duodenum, Pancreas, Ascending and Descending Colon

Liver Location

Right Upper Quadrant, extends across midline to left upper quadrant. Inferior to Diaphragm. Intraperitoneal

Falciform Ligament

Divides liver into right and left anatomical Lobes. Passes from the Parietal Peritoneum on Anterior Abdominal wall to Visceral Peritoneum on surface of Liver. Part of the Coronary Ligament.

Gallbladder Location

Right Upper Quadrant. Extends below inferior border of Liver. Tip of ninth Costal Cartilage at mid-clavicular line. Intraperitoneal

Stomach Location

Left Upper Quadrant. Anterior partially covered by Liver. Intraperitoneal

Spleen Location

Left Upper Quadrant. Posterior to Stomach. Intraperitoneal

Greater Omentum

Attached to the greater curvature of the stomach

Three parts of the Small Intestine

Duodenum, Jejunum, and Ileum

Greater Curvature of the Stomach

Outside Curve (larger circumference)

Duodenum

Secondarily Retroperitoneal

Jejunum and Ileum Location

Extend from Left Upper Quadrant to Right Lower Quadrant. However occupy all four quadrants. Intraperitoneal

Ileocecal Junction

Junction between the Colon and Ileum

Cecum Location

Right Lower Quadrant. Secondarily Retroperitoneal

Appendix Location

Right Lower Quadrant attached to Cecum. Secondarily Retroperitoneal

Ascending Colon Location

Extends from Right Lower Quadrant to Right Upper Quadrant. Ends at the Right Colic (hepatic) flexure. Secondarily Retroperitoneal

Transverse Colon Location

Extends from Right Upper Quadrant to Left Upper Quadrant. Ends at Left colic (Splenic) Flexure. Intraperitoneal

Descending Colon Location

Extends from Left Upper Quadrant to Left Lower Quadrant. Secondarily Retroperitoneal

Sigmoid Colon Location

Left Lower Quadrant. Ends in the Pelvic Cavity at the third sacral Vertebra. Intraperitoneal

Rectum Location

Inside Pelvic Cavity

Lesser Omentum Location

Passes from Lesser Curvature of the Stomach and First Part of the Duodenum to Inferior Surface of Liver. Has two parts: Hepatogastric Ligament and Hepatoduodenal ligament

Hepatogastric Ligament

Part of the Lesser Omentum, extends from the Liver to the Lesser Curvature of the Stomach

Hepatoduodenal Ligament

Part of the Lesser Omentum, extends from the Liver to the First Part of the Duodenum

Round Ligament of the Liver

Obliterated Umbilical Vein. Inferior free margin of the Falciform Ligament

Ligamentum Teres Hepatis

Round Ligament of the Liver

Coronary Ligament

Attaches Liver to Diaphragm. Made of three parts: Falciform Ligament, Left Triangular Ligament, and Right Triangular Ligament.

Left Triangular Ligament

Part of the Coronary Ligament. Between the Left Lobe of Liver and Diaphragm

Right Triangular Ligament

Part of the Coronary Ligament. Between the Right Lobe of Liver and Diaphragm

Transverse Mesocolon

Attaches the transverse colon to the posterior abdominal wall.

Phrenicocolic Ligament

Attaches Left Colic Flexure to Diaphragm. End of the Transverse Mesocolon

Mesentery of the Small Intestines

Suspends the Jejunum and Ileum from the posterior abdominal wall. 6 m long.

Root of the Mesentery

Part of the Mesentery of the Small Intestines. Attaches to the posterior abdominal wall from the Left Upper Quadrant to the Right Lower Quadrant. 15 cm long.

Mesoappendix

Attaches the appendix to the posterior abdominal wall. Contains the appendicular artery

Appendicular Artery

Artery supply to the Appendix. Contained in the mesoapendix.

Sigmoid Mesocolon

Lower Left Quadrant. Suspends sigmoid colon from the posterior abdominal wall.

Greater Peritoneal Sac

Part of the Peritoneal Cavity. Contains the greater portion of Intraperitoneal organs, including Jejunum, Ileum, Transverse Colon, Sigmoid Colon, and Appendix

Lesser Peritoneal Sac

Part of the Peritoneal Cavity. Doesn't really surround any organs, but rather sits posterior to the stomach and liver assisting the greater peritoneal sac to surround these organs with peritoneum. Anterior to the Pancreas (forming the posterior wall of the sac).

Omental Bursa

Lesser Peritoneal Sac

Omental Foramen

Connects Greater and Lesser Peritoneal Sacs. Posterior to the Hepatoduodenal Ligament.

Epiploic Foramen

Omental Foramen

Omental Foramen Boundaries

Anterior: Hepatic Portal Vein, Heaptic Artery ProperHepatoduodenal Ligament
Posterior: Inferior Vena Cava, Right Crus of Diaphragm, and Parietal Peritoneum
Superior: Caudate Lobe of the Liver covered with Visceral Peritoneum
Inferior: First Part of the Duodenum covered with Visceral Peritoneum

Superior Recess

Highest part of the Lesser Peritoneal Sac. Diaphragm lies Posterior and Caudate Lobe of the Liver is Anterior

Jejunum

Proximal 2/5ths of Intraperitoneal Small Intestine. Thicker than Ileum.

Ileum

Distal 3/5ths of Intraperitoneal Small Intestine

Duodenojejunal Junction

Junction between the Duodenum and the Jejunum

Suspensory Ligament of the Duodenum

fibromuscular ligament arising from the Right Crus of the Diaphragm, anchoring the Duodenojejunal Ligament.

Superior Mesenteric Artery

Arises from the Anterior surface of the Abdominal Aorta 1 cm inferior to the Celiac Trunk. Level of the L1 Vertebra. Starts Posterior to the Pancreas, then passes Anterior the Pancreas, third part of the Duodenum, and Left Renal Vein. Upon entering the mesentery of the small intestine, follows path of jejunum and ileum.

Inferior Pancreaticoduodenal Artery

First branch of the Superior Mesenteric Artery. Runs superiorly and to the right to supply the duodenum and head of pancreas.

Vasa Rectae

Terminal branches of intestinal arteries. Proximal Jejunum has long ones, Ileum has short ones.

Arcades

Interconnections between the intestinal arteries. Proximal jejunum has few, Ileum has many.

Ileocolic Artery

Branch of the Superior Mesenteric Artery supplying the Cecum. Gives rise to the appendicular artery. Will anastomos with intestinal arteries and the right colic artery.

Right Colic Artery

Branch of the Superior Mesenteric Artery. Supplies the ascending colon. Divides into a superior and inferior branch.

Middle Colic Artery

Branch of the Superior Mesenteric Artery. Supplies the Transverse Colon (has to pass through the transverse mesocolon)

Superior Mesenteric Vein

Posterior to the Pancreas, joins the splenic vein to from the hepatic portal vein. Along the right side of the Superior Mesenteric Artery.

Superior Mesenteric Lymph Nodes

Inside the Mesentery of the Small Intestine. Located near the origin of the Superior Mesenteric Artery.

Vermiform Appendix

Appendix

#1 Position of the Appendix

Retrocecal @ 64%

External Features of the Large Intestine

Teniae Coli, Haustra, and Omental (epiploic appendices)

Teniae Coli

Three narrow bands of longitudinal Muscle

Haustra

Outpouchings of the wall of the colon

Omental Appendices

Small accumulations of fat covered by visceral peritoneum

Epiploic Appendices

Omental Appendices

Inferior Mesenteric Artery

Arises from anterior surface of abdominal aorta at the L2 and L3 Vertebrae. Most of it lies retroperitoneal.

Left Colic Artery

Branch of the Inferior Mesenteric Artery. Supplies the descending colon and left 1/3rd of the transverse colon. Anastomoses with the middle colic branch of the Superior Mesenteric Artery

Sigmoid Arteries

Branch of the Inferior Mesenteric Artery. 3-4 Arteries that supply the Sigmoid Colon. Pass through the Sigmoid Mesocolon. (Form arcades)

Superior Rectal Artery

Branch of the Inferior Mesenteric Artery. Supplies proximal part of rectum. Split into a left and right and descending into the pelvis.

Inferior Mesenteric Vein

Ascends from the left side of the Inferior Mesenteric Artery. Posterior to pancreas, Joins the splenic vein most frequently or the superior mesenteric vein less frequently.

Inferior Mesenteric Nodes

Lymph nodes around the origin of the inferior mesenteric artery.

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