equilibrium constant (K)
A number characteristic of an equilibrium system at a particular temperature.
If the coefficients in a balanced equation are multiplied by a factor n, the equilibrium constant is raised to the nth power.
The equilibrium constants for forward and reverse reactions are the reciprocals of each other.
multiple equilibria rule
If a reaction can be expressed as the sum of two or more reactions, K for the overall reaction is the product of the equilibrium constants of the individual reactions.
La Châtelier's principle
Whenever a stress is applied to a system at equilibrium, the equilibrium will shift to relieve that stress and reestablish equilibrium.
van't Hoff equation
ln K₂/K₁=ΔH°/R [1/T₁-1/T₂]
The Reaction Quotient (Q)
Used to determine reaction direction.
the reaction proceeds in the forward direction, generating products.
the reaction proceeds in the reverse direction, generation reactants.
the reaction is already at equilibrium.
A state of dynamic balance between forward and reverse reactions that does not change with time.
products form. (spontaneous reaction)
reactants need additional assistance to form products. (nonspontaneous).
equilibrium mixture contains equal amounts
Relationship between Kp and Kc