begins in the Himalayas, flows through what is today mostly Pakistan and ends in the Arabian Sea. In some parts, canyons can be 3 miles high.
the worlds tallest mountains, the highest peak is Mount Everest. The Indus River begins as a stream in these mountains. These mountains separate the Indian subcontinent from much of Asia
a large landmass that is geographically separated from the rest of the continent.
dry, desert-like area where the Indus river meet with other rivers. In spring, floods spill across the area with fertile silt (farmers irrigated fields and built dirt wall to protect their crops and homes).
an ancient city in the Idus Valley (discovered in 1921) that lasted from 2500 B.C. to about 1600 B.C., people know little about it because it's writing system is not understood, merchants from here traded goods in many, some far away, places
an ancient city in the Idus Valley, meaning "Mound of the Dead", 400 miles to the south of Harappa, 40,000 people lived there where streets and homes were well-planned and built, along with advanced sewers by their highly skilled builders, engineers and craftworkers
a massive fort. (In Mohenjo-Daro its thick wall protected against floods and enemies. A large grain warehouse was next it for wheat and barley, which also suggests a strong local government)
to move from one place to another to live
means "noble ones", around migrated through the Hindu Kush Mountains to the Indus Valley, they were herders who orginally came from central Asia, gained control over much of India, spread Hinduism, 1500 B.C.- 500 B.C.
Books of Knowledge, contained sacred songs that had been passed down by Aryans, the first building blocks of Hinduism, told Hindus how to live and explained life
a way of organizing people into hundred of different levels. (Hindus believe that the first humans were born to 4 different parts of a god's body, which became 4 classes of people: priests, professionals, merchants and servants)
a belief of a cycle that people move in a constant circle of birth, death and rebirth (it is based on how people have behaved in their "past lives" and they can break free of their caste)
laws and duties (each caste had its own and Hindus were to follow these rules or might be outcastes along with any children they might have)
people who follow the Hinduism, about 800 million followers (one of the worlds oldest religions), some follow different forms (some believe they are called to become priests, others eat no meat, eggs or fish)
Mountain range to the east of the Indus Plain (Aryans migrated through these about 1600 B.C.)
small river that leads toward a larger river
an ancient language that the Aryan people brought to the Indus Valley and the rest of the subcontinent.
a person who married against the rules of their caste or did a job their caste would not allow were forced to live outside all castes, were "impure", "untouchables"
a map that shows boundaries of nations (countries), states, cities and capitals
a map that shows the natural features of Earth, such as lakes, rivers, mountains, and deserts