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Practice for Final

No-Man's Land

Area between the trenches in World War I,

Trench Warfare

having troop rush across no-man's land into enemy fire

nationalism

love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it

alliances

agreements between nations to aid and protect one another

Imperialism

A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, socially, and economically.

U-boats

German submarines

NAACP

generate support for anti lynching legislation

Ku Klux Klan

Used violence against those they opposed

Jazz

a genre of popular music that originated in the South among African American musicians

Harlem Renaissance

a period in the 1920s when African-American achievements in art and music and literature flourished

Prohibition

the period from 1920 to 1933 when the sale of alcoholic beverages was prohibited in the United States by a constitutional amendment

Bootlegging

the act of making of transporting alcoholic liquor for sale illegally

Depression

a long-term economic state characterized by unemployment and low prices and low levels of trade and investment

Recession

an economic downturn

Shantytowns

Unplanned slum development on the margins of cities, dominated by crude dwellings and shelters made mostly of scrap wood, iron, and even pieces of cardboard.

Breadlines

It was embarrassing for Americans to accept aid. However, during the Depression, breadlines stretched for blocks outside of soup kitchens. This shows that the average American in the depression was having a hard time even just to eat

Dust Bowl

western Kansas and Oklahoma, northern Texas, and eastern Colorado and New Mexico; long periods of drought and destructive farming methods ruined farming in the region

New Deal

The name of President Roosevelt's program for getting the United States out of the depression

Assembly Line

In a factory, an arrangement where a product is moved from worker to worker, with each person performing a single task in the making of the product.

Teapot Dome Scandal

Scandal during the Harding administration involving the granting of oil-drilling rights on government land in return for money

Great Migration

movement of many African Americans to northern cities from the south in the early 1900s

Zimmerman Note

Written by Arthur Zimmerman, a German foreign secretary. In this note he had secretly proposed a German- Mexican alliance. He tempted Mexico with the ideas of recovering Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico. The note was intercepted on March 1, 1917 by the U.S. government. This was a major factor that led us into WWI.

Herbert Hoover

Republican candidate who assumed the presidency in March 1929 promising the American people prosperity and attempted to first deal with the Depression by trying to restore public faith in the community.

Franklin D. Roosevelt

Was elected president of the US by an overwhelming majority in 1932, introduced the New Deal, and led the US through most of WWII.

Totalitarian State

country where a single party controls the government and every aspect of the lives of the people

Appeasement

practice of giving in to aggression in order to avoid war

Blitzkrieg

"Lighting war", typed of fast-moving warfare used by German forces against Poland n 1939

Holocaust

A methodical plan orchestrated by Hitler to ensure German supremacy. It called for the elimination of Jews, non-conformists, homosexuals, non-Aryans, and mentally and physically disabled.

Genocide

systematic killing of a racial or cultural group

Fascist Party

Italian political party created by Benito Mussolini during World War I. It emphasized aggressive nationalism and was Mussolini's instrument for the creation of a dictatorship in Italy from 1922 to 1943.

Antisemitism

prejudice against Jews

Pearl Harbor

United States military base on Hawaii that was bombed by Japan, bringing the United States into World War II. Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941.

Internment

the imprisonment or confinement of people, commonly in large groups, without trial. We did it to Japanese-Americans in WWII because we thought they might be spies or something.

General Dwight D Eisenhower

Led the allied invasion of North Africa and planned and executed the D-Day invasion at Normandy and the battle of the budge

Cold War

This period of time following World War II is where the United States and the Soviet Union emerged as superpowers and faced off in an arms race that lasted nearly 50 years.

Arms Race

Cold war competition between the U.S. and Soviet Union to build up their respective armed forces and weapons

NASA

National Aeronautic and Space Administration - a US government agency in charge of the space program

Sputnik

First artificial Earth satellite, it was launched by Moscow in 1957 and sparked U.S. fears of Soviet dominance in technology and outer space. It led to the creation of NASA and the space race.

communism

a theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state.

socialism

a social and political philosophy based on the belief that democratic means should be used to evenly distribute wealth throughout a society

segregation

separation of people based on racial, ethnic, or other differences

United Nations

International organization founded in 1945 to promote world peace and cooperation. It replaced the League of Nations.

Berlin Wall

In 1961, the Soviet Union built a high barrier to seal off their sector of Berlin in order to stop the flow of refugees out of the Soviet zone of Germany. The wall was torn down in 1989.

Korean War

Conflict that began with North Korea's invasion of South Korea and came to involve the United Nations (primarily the United States) allying with South Korea and the People's Republic of China allying with North Korea.

Vietnam War

a prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States

Brown vs Board of Education

1954- court decision that declared state laws segregating schools to be unconstitutional. Overturned Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)

Little Rock Nine

Nine African American students who first integrated Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, in 1957.

McCarthyism

Intense anti-communist suspicion from late 1940s until late 1950s. Named to criticize actions of Senator Joseph McCarthy during second "Red Scare".

Bay of Pigs

An unsuccessful invasion of Cuba in 1961, which was sponsored by the United States. Its purpose was to overthrow Cuban dictator Fidel Castro.

Civil Rights Act 1957

made it a federal crime to prevent qualified persons from voting--Set up federal Civil Rights Commission to investigate violations of the law

Civil Rights Act 1964

This act made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal and gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights, including desegregation of schools and public places.

Watergate

Break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate building in 1972 that resulted in a cover-up and the subsequent resignation of Nixon

Persian Gulf War

a 1991 war in which the United States and its UN allies drove invading Iraqi forces out of neighboring Kuwait

Harry S. Truman

became president after the death of Roosevelt in April; decided to drop the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki

Martin Luther King Jr.

In 1963 made the famous "I Have a Dream Speech" during the March on Washington.

Rosa Parks

United States civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery (Alabama) and so triggered the national civil rights movement

Thurgood Marshall

the first African American to serve on the Supreme Court of the United States. Prior to becoming a judge, he was a lawyer who was best remembered for his activity in the Little Rock 9 and his high success rate in arguing before the Supreme Court and for the victory in Brown v. Board of Education

Richard Nixon

President of the United States from 1969 to 1974 who followed a foreign policy marked by détente with the Soviet Union and by the opening of diplomatic relations with China. In the face of likely impeachment for the Watergate scandal, he resigned.

Spiro Agnew

resigned from Vice President after admitting that he took bribes and evaded his income tax.

Gerald Ford

president, 1974-1977, who served without being elected either president or vice president; appointed vice president under the terms of the Twenty-Fifth Amendment when Spiro Agnew resigned, he assumed the presidency when Nixon resigned.

Mikhail Gorbachev

Head of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. His liberalization effort improved relations with the West, but he lost power after his reforms led to the collapse of Communist governments in eastern Europe.

Bill Clinton

won election of 1992 and was impeached due to Monica Lewinsky scandal and after acquitted

George H. W. Bush

Continued Reagan's conservative policies; brought together United Nations Coalition to fight in Persian Gulf

Freedom Riders

Group of civil rights workers who took bus trips through southern states in 1961 to protest illegal bus segregation

NAFTA

North American Free Trade Agreement, which phased out trade barriers among the United States, Canada, and Mexico

Jimmy Carter

President who stressed human rights. Because of the Soviet war in Afghanistan, he enacted an embargo on grain shipments to USSR and boycotted the 1980 Olympics in Moscow

Malcolm X

Black Muslim leader who said Blacks needed to have separate society from whites, but later changed his views. He was assassinated in 1965.

George W. Bush

President from 1989-1993, president 1989-93; economic recession and US involvement in the Persian Gulf war

Amendment 1

Freedom of Speech, Freedom of Religion, Freedom of the Press, Freedom of Assembly, Freedom to Petition the Government.

Amendment 2

right to bear arms; right to form a militia

Amendment 3

no forced quartering of troops in homes during peacetime

Amendment 4

Prohibits unreasonable searches and seizures (need a warrant with probable cause).

Amendment 5

Indictments; Due process; Self-incrimination; Double jeopardy, and rules for Eminent Domain.

Amendment 6

Right to a speedy trial, an impartial jury, to confront witnesses against you, and to have a lawyer.

Amendment 7

People have the right to a jury trial in civil suits over $20.00

Amendment 8

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

Amendment 9

People have certain rights even when they are not specifically stated in the Constitution.

Amendment 10

Powers not delegated to the federal government are reserved to the states and the people

Amendment 11

No citizen of one state shall bring suit against another state in federal court, nor shall any citizen bring suit of their own state to federal court.

Amendment 12

redefines how the President and Vice-President are chosen by the Electoral College, making the two positions cooperative, rather than first and second highest vote-getters. It also ensures that anyone who becomes Vice-President must be eligible to become President.

Amendment 13

Abolishes slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime

Amendment 14

citizenship, due process, and equal protection of the laws

Amendment 15

No denial of vote because of race, color, previous condition of servitude

Amendment 16

Congress has the power to set tax rates on income for all citizens and the means for collecting the associated taxes

Amendment 17

Senators no longer appointed by state legislatures. Now to be directly elected by citizens.

Amendment 18

Prohibition of alcoholic beverages - banned making, selling, or transporting of alcoholic beverages

Amendment 19

Woman's Suffrage, women gain the right to vote

Amendment 20

Changed the date the president takes office from Mar.4th to Jan.20th also changed start of congress to Jan.3

Amendment 21

The production, distribution, and consumption of alcohol is legal in the United States.

Amendment 22

limit 2 terms for president maximum of 10 years for a president that took over from another

Amendment 23

Gave residents of Washington D.C the right to vote in presidential elections

Amendment 24

Prohibition of the restriction of voting rights due to the non-payment of poll taxes

Amendment 25

Established process for president to pass on duties if he/she is unable to serve. Goes to Vice-President,vacancy in Vice-Presidency is filled by appointment from president (approved by congress)

Amendment 26

Gave 18-year-old the right to vote in federal and state elections

Amendment 27

no pay increase for members of Congress during current term of office. , Congress makes up own salary, but didn't come into play until next term.

World War 2

a global military conflict which involved a majority of the worlds nations, including all of the great powers, organized into two opposing military alliances: the allies and the axis

Vietnam War

a prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States

1980's

pacman,Michael Jackson, Ronald Reagan, Berlin Wall fell,teenage mutant ninja turtles

1990's

grunge, alternative
spirit of punk, anti-fashion, anti commercial
Hip-hop directly contradicts the polished, professional, less political world of soul

1970's

Disco, Nixon, protests, violence, dependence on foreign oil and goods, "me" era, civil rights and women's liberation affect advertising.

1960's

civil rights, hippie, TC, Vietnam, cold war, space race, changes in music, second wave feminism, sexual revolution, with advertising we get a creative revolution.

1950's

Suburbs, Korea, Cold War, Interstate Highway, Rock and Roll. The Sameness was popular, Levitt towns, Cars, Disenyland

Y2k bug

widespread computer programming problem created by date abbreviations that threatened to shut down computer systems on January 1st, 2000

9/11

a series of coordinated suicide attacks by al-Qaeda upon the United States on September 11, 2001. On that morning, 19 al-Qaeda terrorists hijacked four commercial passenger jet airliners. The hijackers intentionally crashed two of the airliners into the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in New York City, killing everyone on board and many others working in the buildings.

George W. Bush

43rd president of the US who began a campaign toward energy self-sufficiency and against terrorism in 2001

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