Great Columbian/Biological Exchange
Exchange of plants and animals between the New World and Europe following the discovery of America in 1492.
Italian explorer, sailed from Spain in 1492 and reached Americas, greatly increased European awareness of the the North American Continent
Bartolomeo de las Casas
16th Century Spanish Historian, Dominican Friar, "Protector of the Indians;" opposed atrocities by colonizers on Indigenous people
Empire control in Mexico, South America, and Florida, religious empire; Franciscans + mission system, defensive buffers vs. English, French, and Russians. Economic empire.
Empire control in Canada, Ohio, and Mississippi River Valley with Louisiana. Religious: Jesuits. Positive indigenous relations. Fur trade. Coureurs du bois.
Exhibited control in the form of dominions, colonies, mandates, and territories. Queen Elizabeth I was a prominent ruler during the colonial period of this empire. French Rivalry + engaged in Columbian Exchange.
Pilgrims/Separatists agreement: agreement to obey laws created by the community and a profession of allegiance to the king
This colony was founded in 1607. First settlement was Jamestown. Charter to stock company/royal. Tobacco was vital to its survival.
The year when the first U.S representative assembly was established - House of Burgesses (Jamestown, Virginia)
Colonial uprising that took place in 1676 in the Virginia colony, led by Nathaniel Bacon. Virginians resented William Berkeley's friendly policy towards Native Americans. This was the first rebellion in American colonies in which discontented frontiersmen took part.
Founded in 1634 by Lord Baltimore, founded to be a place for persecuted Catholics to find refuge, a safe haven, act of toleration
Guaranteed religious toleration to trinitarian Christians, but decreed the death penalty to Jews and atheists and others who didn't believe in the divinity of Jesus Christ,
New England colonies
The term for the colonies of Massachusetts bay, Rhode Island, and New Hampshire
Massachusetts Bay Colony
Colony founded in 1630 by John Winthrop, part of the Great Puritan Migration, founded by puritans. Had a theocratic republic. "City upon a hill"
"City upon a hill"
Said by Winthrop; refers to the idea that Puritan colonists emigrating to the New World were part of a special pact with God to create a holy community: a model society to the world/moral commonwealth
Woman who challenged Purtian religous authorities in Massachusetts Bay. Puritan authorities banished her because she challenged religious doctrine, gender roles. clerical authority, and claimed to have had revelations from God
King Philip's war
1675. longest and bloodiest conflict between settlers and natives in 17th century, native Wampanoags under KIng Phillip ( Indian Chieftain) resisted England encroachment on their land, they killed many settlers in Mass, English joined with Mohawks to defeat them
Salem Witch Trials
1629 outbreak of witchcraft accusations in a Massachussets Bay puritan village marked by an atmosphere of fear, hysteria and stress. Spectral evidence was used frequently.
Rhode Island Colony
Self-governing colony founded by Roger Williams in 1636; granted freedom for all religions and non-believers; religious toleration; disestablishment, universal suffrage for white males w/property qualifications; most democratic
Separation of church and state; no religion is officially supported by the state/government; opposed tax-supported church
Colony founded by Thomas Hooker in 1636; self-governing; origin of Fundamental Orders
The first constitution written in North America; granted ALL adult males to vote not just church going land owners as was the policy in Massachutes
Dutch colonial settlement that served as the capital of New Netherland. This later became "New York City"
Colonies created as a result from the land grants in North America given by King Charles II of England The two major restoration colonies were Pennsylvania and Carolina.
New York colony
Colony founded by Dutch in 1624. Very diverse and wealthy colony. Contained the Hudson river
Colony formed from the "Holy Experiment"; settled by Quakers. Founded by Willian Penn, who bought land from the Native Americans. Allowed religious freedom
An English Quaker, founded Pennsylvania in 1682, after receiving a charter from King Charles II the year before. He launched the colony as a "holy experiment" based on religious tolerance.
Colony founded by James Oglethorpe. Its first settlers were debtors and unfortunates( "worthy poor"). Tolerant to Christians but not Catholics. Acted as a buffer between Spanish Florida and the Carolinas.
Founded Georgia; a member of parliament; philanthropist; social reformer (helping those in debtors' prisons)
Economic philosophy of 17th and 18th century European nations; sought to increase wealth and power through acquisition of gold and silver and establishing a favorable balance of trade. Colonies served interest of mother country through importation of its raw materials -> Exportation > importation
Trading System between Europe, Africa, and the colonies; European purchased slaves in Africa and sold them to colonies, new materials from colonies went to Europe while European finished products were sold in the colonies.
Acts passed in 1660 passed by British parliament to increase colonial dependence on Great Britian for trade; limited goods that were exported to colonies; caused great resentment in American colonies.
Dominion of New England
1686 - The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros). The Dominion ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros.
Glorious Revolution (in America)
Elimination of Dominion of England in 1689; Plymouth added to Massachusetts in 1691; Reinstatement of legislative assemblies; Coode's Rebellion; some royal governors; more closely intertwined empire
The religion of a group of religious dissidents who came to the New World so they would have a location to establish a "purer" church than the one that existed in England
18th century philosophy stressing reason, and how it can be used to improve the human condition. Natural rights was a major idea that influenced Thomas Jefferson in the writing of the Declaration of Independence.
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.
Printer, author, inventor, diplomat, statesman, and Founding Father. One of the few Americans who was highly respected in Europe, primarily due to his discoveries in the field of electricity. He helped to negotiate French support for the American Revolution.
First Great Awakening
Religious revival in the colonies in 1730s and 1740s; George Whitefield and Jonathan Edwards preached a message of atonement for sins by admitting them to God. The movement attempted to combat the growing secularism and rationalism of mid-eighteenth century America. Religious splits in the colonies became deeper.
English clergyman who was known for his ability to convince many people through his sermons. He involved himself in the Great Awakening in 1739 preaching his belief in gaining salvation.
18th century immigration
Increase in non-English immigrants and fewer English immigrants; Scots-Irish, Scots, Germans, Dutch, Africans; poor move west for cheaper land
More than 10 million Africans brought to Americas. This institution was lifelong and generational, racial based, economically profitable, and was abolished by the 13th amendment.
An uprising of slaves in South Carolina in 1739, leading to the tightening of already harsh slave laws. The largest slave uprising in the colonies.
The case that established the precedent that true statements about public officials could not be prosecuted as libel; Newspapers are not financially liable for criticism of government if actually true.
French and Indian/Seven Year's War
The war fought by French and English on American soil over control of the Ohio River Valley-- English defeated French in 1763. Historical Significance: established England as number one world power and began to gradually change attitudes of the colonists toward England for the worse (i.e taxing)
Albany Plan of Union
Plan proposed by Benjamin Franklin in 1754 that aimed to unite the 13 colonies for trade, military (defense), and other purposes; the plan was turned down at every colonial assembly and by the Crown.
Benjamin Franklin Achievements
Spread Enlightenment ideals: need for scientific research, importance of education. Advocate of religious toleration; first "self-made man" ; only American to sign the three founding documents of the U.S (Declaration of Independence, Treaty of Paris, Constitution ; only founding father to be public anti-slavery advocate ; most democratic founding father; made the middle class individual an important factor in American society.
After the French and Indian War, colonists began moving westward and settling on Indian land. This migration led to this conflict in 1763, when a large number of Indian tribes banded together under the Ottawa chief Pontiac to keep the colonists from taking over their land.
Proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
An act passed by the British parliament in 1756 that raised revenue from the American colonies by a duty in the form of a stamp required on all newspapers and legal or commercial documents
Sons of Liberty
A radical political organization formed by Samuel Adams after the passage of the Stamp Act to protest various British acts; organization used both peaceful and violent means of protest
Daughters of Liberty
This organization supported the boycott of British goods. They urged Americans to wear homemade fabrics and produce other goods that were previously available only from Britain. They believed that way, the American colonies would become economically independent.
Act passed in 1766 after the repeal of the stamp act; stated that Parliament had authority over the the colonies and the right to tax and pass legislation "in all cases whatsoever."
A tax that the British Parliament passed in 1767 that was placed on leads, glass, paint and tea
The first bloodshed of the Amercan Revolution (1770), as British guards at the Boston Customs House opened fire on a crowd killing five Americans
Boston Tea Party
Demonstration (1773) by citizens of Boston who (disguised as Indians) raided three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harbor
Acts passed in retaliation to the Boston Tea Party; the British government closed port of Boston until tea was paid for; revised the charter if Massachusetts (which drastically reduced their powers of self-government), forced colonists of Massachusetts to house British soldiers and allowed British officers to be tried in England for crimes of violence.
American Revolution (1775-1783)
A period when 13 colonies gained independence from England. Based on disapproval by colonists of several taxes and other unpopular laws. Protests lead to fighting in 1775, and after two main British armies were captured in 1777 and 1781 and an alliance of the colonists with the French, the Treaty of Paris was signed.
The legislative assembly composed of delegates from the rebel colonies who met during and after the American Revolution
A pamphlet written by Thomas Paine in 1776 that criticized monarchies and convinced many American colonists of the need to break away from Britain
Declaration of Independence
The document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain
General George Washington
Commander in Chief of the Continental Army. Brilliantly led America to victory and freedom in the American Revolution. Became 1st US president
Battle of Saratoga
Turning point of the American Revolution. It was very important because it convinced the French to give the U.S. military support. It lifted American spirits, ended the British threat in New England by taking control of the Hudson River, and, most importantly, showed the French that the Americans had the potential to beat their enemy, Great Britain.
The French entered the war in 1778, and assisted in the victory of the Americans seeking independence from Britain
Articles of Confederation
This document, the nations first constitution, was adopted by the second continental congress in 1781 during the revolution. The document was limited because states held most of the power, and congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, and control coinage
The officers of the Continental Army had long gone without pay, and they met in New York to address Congress about their pay, they also considered staging a coup and seizing control of the new government, but the plotting ceased when George Washington refused to support the plan.
Peace of Paris (1783)
Great Britain recognized the independence of the United States, agreed to the Mississippi boundary in the west, Florida was passed back to Spain; Loyalist property that had been confiscated would be returned.
Political movement / ideology that supports the ideas that all power and sovereignty comes directly from the people and not from some authoritative person and that the success of a government depends on the characters of its citizens.
Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom
1779 - Written by Thomas Jefferson, this statute outlawed an established church and called for separation of Church and State. (Disestablishment)
The idea that American women had a special responsibility to cultivate "civic virtue" in their children
Land ordinance and Northwest Ordinance
Systematic survey of land, land divided in 6 x 6 mile regions; Established a system for setting up governments in the western territories so they could eventually join the Union on an equal footing with the original 13 states ; laid the legal and cultural groundwork for midwestern (and subsequently, western) development
This conflict in Massachusetts caused many to criticize the Articles of Confederation and admit the weak central government was not working; uprising led by Daniel Shays in an effort to prevent courts from foreclosing on the farms of those who could not pay the taxes
Philadelphia (Constitutional) Convention
The meeting of state delegates in 1787 in Philadelphia called to revise the Articles of Confederation. It instead designed a new plan of government, the US Constitution.
Strict constructionist, 4th president, father of the Constitution, leads nation through War of 1812, author of Bill of Rights
Virginia delegate James Madison's plan of government, in which states got a number of representatives in Congress based on their population
New Jersey Plan
New Jersey delegate William Paterson's plan of government, in which states got an equal number of representatives in Congress
Compromise made by Constitutional Convention in which states would have equal representation in one house of the legislature (Senate) and representation based on population in the other house (House of Representatives)
The decision at the Constitutional convention to count slaves as 3/5 of a person for the purpose of deciding the population and determining how many seats each state would have in Congress
Charles Beard's Constitution thesis
A historian who argued that the Constitution was designed to protect the economic self-interest of its framers. Beard's view is largely rejected by contemporary scholars
Ratification of the Constitution debate
Opponents (anti-federalists) feared central power and wanted Bill of Rights; Constitution ratified at conventions; ultimately ratified b/c support of Washington and Franklin (Federalists), Federalist Papers, promise to add Bill of Rights
Series of essays, written by Hamilton, Madison, and Jay, that defended the Constitution and tried to reassure Americans that the states would not be overpowered by the federal government.
Bill of Rights
A formal statement of the fundamental rights of the people of the United States, incorporated in the Constitution as Amendments 1-10, and in all state constitutions.
Washington's Presidency (1789-1797)
He set the precedent for being the President of the United States. He humbly served two terms and appointed the first cabinet. He stayed out of Congress' way and supported the United States' isolationist stance in world affairs.
Hamilton's financial program
A financial plan involving the funding of national debt at par value, the assumption of state debts, and the establishment of a national bank
Establishment of Washington D.C as nation's capital
Disagreements rose as to which state it would be a part of. In 1790, Alexander Hamilton proposed a solution that established the new permanent capital on federal land rather than in a state. President George Washington was asked to pick the site. Both Maryland and Virginia gave up land along the Potomac River that became the District of Columbia, established in 1791.
A 1793 statement by President Washington that the United States would not support or aid either France or Britain in their European conflict following the French Revolution
An agreement between made up by John Jay; said that Britain was to pay for Americans ships that were seized in 1793 ; Americans had to pay British merchants debts owed from before the revolution ; Britain had agreed to remove their troops from the Ohio Valley
Agreement with Spain that changed Florida's border, opened the Mississippi River to American navigation, and granted Americans the right of deposit in New Orleans; Spain agreed to the treaty because it feared that Jay's Treaty included an Anglo-American alliance.
A protest caused by tax on liquor; it tested the will of the government; Washington's quick response showed the government's strength and mercy (led an army to put down the rebellion)
First Party System: Federalists vs. Democratic-Republicans
A term that defines the period of time when the Federalists and Democratic-Republicans competed for the presidency. Federalists (Hamilton): industrial society, strong central govt., loose interpretation;Republicans(Jefferson/Madison): decentralized, agrarian society and economy, limited central govt., belief in states rights, strict interpretation. It was ended with the Era of Good Feelings. ,
Washington's Farewell Address
Warned against permanent foreign alliances and political parties, called for unity of the country, established precedent of two-term presidency
John Adams' Presidency (1797-1801)
He was the second president of the United States and a Federalist. He was responsible for passing the Alien and Sedition Acts. Prevented all out war with France after the XYZ Affair. His passing of the Alien and Sedition Acts severely hurt the popularity of the Federalist party and himself
Incident in which French agents demanded a bribe and loan from the U.S. diplomats in exchange for discussing an agreement that French privateers would no longer attack American ships; led to an undeclared war between U.S. and France
Term widely used to describe French and American naval conflicts between 1798 to 1800. Neither nation declared war, although they carried out naval operations against each other
Alien and Sedition Acts
A series of laws that sought to restrict the activities of people who opposed Federalist policies (1798)
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.
Election of 1800
Jefferson and Burr each received 73 votes in the Electoral College, so the House of Representatives had to decide the outcome. The House chose Jefferson as President and Burr as Vice President.
After 1800, the only branch left in the Federalists' hands was the Judiciary. On John Adam's last night as president he made last minute appointments for Federalists to judgeships. He did so in an attempt to maintain Federalist control of judiciary branch.
Jefferson's Presidency (1801-1809)
Democrat-Republican; Major events during his presidency include the Louisiana Purchase (1803) and the Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804-1806), as well as escalating tensions with both Britain and France that led to war with Britain in 1812, after he left office.
Second Great Awakening
A series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on Methodism and Baptism. Stressed a religious philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all Protestant sects. The revivals attracted women, Blacks, and Native Americans.
A leading evangelist of the Second Great Awakening, he preached that each person had capacity for spiritual rebirth and salvation and that through individual effort could be saved. His concept of "utility of benevolence" proposed the reformation of society as well as of individuals.
Lewis and Clark Expedition
An expedition sent by Thomas Jefferson to explore the northwestern territories (Louisiana territory) of the United States ; led by Merriwether Lewis and William Clark; traveled from St. Louis to the mouth of the Columbia River from 1803 to 1806
Scheme by Vice-President Aaron Burr to lead the succession of the Louisiana Territory from the US and create his own empire. He was captured in 1807 and charged with treason. Because there was no evidence or two witnesses he was acquitted. Marshall upholds the strict rules for trying someone for treason.
The British practice of taking American sailors from American ships and forcing them into the British navy; a factor in the War of 1812.
A feud that occurred in 1807 when the US Chesapeake was stopped in the mid-Atlantic by the British Leopard ; led to British attacks ; ultimately led to the enforcement of the Embargo Act by Jefferson
1807 act which ended all of America's importation and exportation. Jefferson hoped the act would pressure the French and British to recognize U.S. neutrality rights in exchange for U.S. goods. In reality, it hurt Americans and its economy and got repealed in 1809.
He inspired a religious revival that spread through many tribes and united them; killed by Harrison at battle of Tippecanoe
Tecumseh and the Indian Confederation
As American settlers moved westward in the early 1800s, a Shawnee chief named Tecumseh realized that the Indians had to unify against encroachment on their land. With the inspiration of his brother, a religious visionary who became known as The Prophet, Tecumseh formed a confederation of Indian tribes determined to thwart the taking of Indian lands
James Madison's Presidency (1809-1817)
Democratic-republican; includes War of 1812, Protective Tariff and renewal of bank, beginning of Era of Good Feelings
The nationalist members of Congress who strongly supported war with Great Britain on the eve of the War of 1812; included Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun.
War of 1812 (1812-1815)
Fought between Britain and the United States largely over the issues of trade and impressment. Though the war ended in a relative draw, it demonstrated America's willingness to defend its interests militarily, earning the young nation new found respect from European powers.
Meeting of Federalists near the end of the War of 1812 in which the party listed it's complaints against the rulings of the Republican Party. These actions were viewed as traitorous to the country and had lost the Federalists much influence and respect (The practical end of the Federalist Party).
Battle of New Orleans
A battle in 1815 between American and British troops for control of New Orleans, ending in an American victory
James Monroe (1817-1825)
The fifth President of the United States (1817-1825).His administration was marked by the acquisition of Florida (1819); the Missouri Compromise (1820), in which Missouri was declared a slave state; and the profession of the Monroe Doctrine (1823), declaring U.S. opposition to European interference in the Americas.
Era of Good Feelings
A name for President Monroe's two terms, a period of strong nationalism, economic growth, and territorial expansion. Since the Federalist party dissolved after the War of 1812, there was only one political party (democratic-republican) and no partisan conflicts.
Spain ceded Florida to US; established border between US and Spanish Mexico in 1819
A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere
U.S Industrial Revolution
Transformation of manufacturing; power-driven machines took place of hand-operated tools especially after 1815
He was a British mechanic that moved to America and in 1791 invented the first American machine for spinning cotton. He is known as "the Father of the Factory System" and he started the idea of child labor in America's factories.
Tariff of 1816
This protective tariff helped American industry by raising the prices of British manufactured goods, which were often cheaper and of higher quality than those produced in the U.S.
Second Bank of the U.S
A national bank chartered by Congress in 1816 with extensive regulatory powers over currency and credit; modeled after Hamilton's original bank and fixing Revolutionary War debt
The first highway built by the federal government. Constructed during 1825-1850, it stretched from Pennsylvania to Illinois. It was a major overland shipping route and an important connection between the North and the West.
American inventor who designed the first commercially successful steamboat and the first steam warship (1765-1815)
A canal between the New York cities of Albany and Buffalo, completed in 1825. The canal, considered a marvel of the modern world at the time, allowed western farmers to ship surplus crops to sell in the North and allowed northern manufacturers to ship finished goods to sell in the West.
De Witt Clinton
The leader of government officials who came up with the plan to link New York City with the Great Lakes region.
Calhoun presented this bill in 1817, 1.5 million bank funds to fund internal improvements; passed but vetoed by Madison in his last day in office
This system developed in the textile mills of Lowell, Massachusetts in the 1820s, in these factories as much machinery as possible was used, so that few skilled workers were needed in the production process; the workers were almost all young single farm woman.
Nineteenth-century idea in Western societies that men and women, especially of the middle class, should have different roles in society: women as wives, mothers, and homemakers; men as breadwinners and participants in business and politics
John Marshall's Supreme Court
Period of court ruling from 1801 to 1835; shaped interpretation of Constitution (loose); strengthened judicial branch; increased power of federal government over state; support of economic activity
Dartmouth College decision
Corporation contracts were inviolable and could not be controlled by state govts.
Placed restrictions on the power of state govts. to control corporations
Upheld constitutionality of Bank of the United States ; Established loose/broad construction/interpretation of the Constitution as constitutional
Invalidated Georgia law that required U.S. citizens entering Cherokee territory to obtain permission from governor of Georgia
Enlarged population due to largest immigration in US history; migration to cities b/c native farming classes forced off land due to changes in agriculture and immigrants; improved transportation, beginnings of industrialization
Panic of 1819
This was the first widespread economic crisis in the United States which brought deflation, depression, bank failures, and unemployment. This set back nationalism to more sectionalism and hurt the poorer class, which gave way to Jacksonian Democracy.
A narrow-minded concern for, or devotion to, the interests of one section of a country over the interests of the nation as a whole
Missouri Crisis and Compromise
Missouri was not supposed to be a slave state, but it was, and its admission into the Union would tip the balance in favor of the South; Allowed Missouri to enter the union as a slave state, Maine to enter the union as a free state, prohibited slavery north of latitude 36˚ 30' within the Louisiana Territory (1820)
Democracy in America
Classic French text by Alexis de Tocqueville on the United States in the 1830s and its strengths and weaknesses such as the tyranny of the majority; explained why republicanism succeeded in the U.S. and failed elsewhere.
Universal Manhood Suffrage
Giving all adult men the right to vote, whether they owned property or not.
Short-lived armed insurrection in the U.S. state of Rhode Island; Agitation for changes to the state's electoral system
The system where one is elected and replaces former government officials/workers with members of his/ her own political party or his/ her friends and supporters.
National Party Conventions
Held to select the each parties official Presidential & adopt the party's platform; delegates to convention were usually members of local party elitists
Maysville Road veto
veto by Jackson that prevented the Maysville road from being funded by federal money since it only benefited Kentucky;this was a blow to Clay's American System, & it irritated the West.
Senator of Massachusetts; famous American politician & orator; advocated renewal & opposed the financial policy of Jackson; many of the principles of finance he spoke about were later incorporated in the Federal Reserve System; later pushed for a strong union.
"Liberty and Union" Speech
response to S. Carolina Senator Robert Y. Hayne's defense of nullification theory; "Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable"
John C. Calhoun
S. Carolina Senator who advocate for state's rights, limited government, & nullification; damaged relations w/ Jackson
Tariff of Abominations
favored Western agricultural interests by raising tariffs or import taxes, thus favoring Northern manufacturers; in the South, these tariffs raised the cost of manufactured goods, thus angering them & causing more sectionalist feelings--> nullification
South Carolina Exposition and Protest
Written in 1828 by Vice President Calhoun of S. Carolina to protest the the "Tariff of Abominations", which seemed to favor Northern industry; introduced the concept of state interposition & became the basis for S. Carolina's Nullification Doctrine of 1833.
Southerners favored freedom of trade & believed in the authority of states over the fed. gov.--> declared federal protective tariffs null and void; South believed individual state cannot defy fed. gov. alone; led to increased sense among Southerners as "minority" & threat of secession rather than nullification was the South's ultimate weapon
Force Bill (1833)
Jackson's response to S. Carolina's ordinance of nullification that declared the tariffs of 1828 & 2832 null and void, & S. Carolina would not collect duties on them; authorized President Jackson to use military force to collect duties on the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832; never invoked b/c it was passed by Congress the same day as the Compromise Tariff of 1833, so it became unnecessary; nullified by S. Carolina
Compromise Tariff of 1833
A new tariff proposed by Henry Clay & John Calhoun that gradually lowered the tariff to the level of the tariff of 1816; avoided civil war & prolonged the union for another 30 years.
Eastern Indian Removal
Process of white westerners wanting valuable Indian (savages) land (1830-42); $ appropriated to negotiate treaties & remove Indians; Indian Intercourse Act created Indian territory in Oklahoma
Trail of Tears (1838)
The route taken by Native Americans as they were relocated to Oklahoma; 20-25% perished before reaching Oklahoma
Jackson vs. Biddle (fed. gov. director of bank); Jackson believed the Bank of US had too much power and was too rich; vetoed the 2nd Bank charter & withdrew gov. money from the US Banks & put it into "pet banks";Jackson vetoed bill he thought was wrong
Charles River Bridge Case
dispute over the constitutional clause regarding obligation of contract, decided that public convenience takes precedence
Second Party System: Democrats and Whigs
Whigs (opposed Jackson= Webster, Calhoun, Clay) - fed. gov. aid economic development (American System), cautious of territorial expansion; Democrats (Jackson, Van Buren) - limit fed. gov. power and protect states rights, suspicious of gov. attempts to stimulate commercial/industrial growth, support territorial expansion
Presidency of Martin Van Buren (1837-1841)
Panic of 1837; created Independent Treasury/Subtreasury System; loaned money to states for infrastructure; would not involve gov. to stop depression
Panic of 1837 and economic depression
Government only accepted "specie" as payment for public lands + crop failures --> 5 year depression
Van Buren reaction to Panic of 1837; fed gov. placed funds in independent treasury--> fed. gov. divorced
Election of 1840
William Henry Harrison (Whig) vs. Martin Van Buren (Democrat); result: Whig victory & a truly national two-party system.
American writer who wrote textbooks to help the advancement of education; wrote a dictionary which helped standardize the American language.
James Fenimore Cooper
1st truly American novelist noted for his stories of Indians and the frontier life; man's relationship w/ nature & westward expansion
Unrestrained celebration of democracy; liberation of individual; broke traditional forms of verse
Moby Dick; he rejected the optimism of the transcendentalists and felt that man faced a tragic destiny
Hudson Valley School of Art
Pre-photography w/o humans; focus on beauty of landscape--> American pride & nationalism
1770's by "Mother" Ann Lee; Utopian group that splintered from the Quakers; believed that they & all other churches had grown too interested in this world & neglectful of their afterlives; prohibited marriage and sexual relationships; practiced celibacy
Church of Jesus Christ Latter Day Saints; founded by Joseph Smith in 1830; began in upstate NY, "burned-over district"; moved to Salt Lake City, Utah
Individuals strive to "transcend" limits of intellect" & allow emotions/ soul to create original relation to universe
Ralph Waldo Emerson
American transcendentalist who was against slavery and stressed self-reliance, optimism, self-improvement, self-confidence, and freedom; prime example of a transcendentalist; "Nature" & "Self-Reliance"
Henry David Thoreau
Transcendentalist; civil disobedience; gov. that violates individual morality has no legit authority
"Separate spheres"/ "cult of domesticity" v. feminism/ Seneca Falls- Antebellum period; reform movements
Quaker activist in both the abolitionist and women's movements; w/ Elizabeth Cady Stanton, she was a principal organizer of the Seneca Falls Convention
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Suffragette who, w/ Lucretia Mott, organized the 1sr convention on women's rights held in Seneca Falls; issued the Declaration of Sentiments which declared men and women to be equal and demanded the right to vote for women; co-founded the National Women's Suffrage Association w/ Susan B. Anthony in 1869
Susan B. Anthony
Social reformer who campaigned for women's rights, the temperance, & was an abolitionist, helped form the National Woman Suffrage Association
Seneca Falls Convention
Took place in upperstate New York in 1848; women of all ages and even some men went to discuss the rights and conditions of women; wrote the Declaration of Sentiments which tried to get women the right to vote.
Female reformer that pushed for female employment as teachers; still embraced the role of a good homemaker for women; an example of the fact that not all women were pushing for radical reforms.
Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education; "Father of the public school system"; a prominent proponent of public school reform, & set the standard for public schools throughout the nation; lengthened academic year; pro training & higher salaries to teachers
Passed in 1851; 1st big step in the Temperance Movement - outlawed sale & manufacturing of alcohol except for medical purposes
Rights activist; created 1st wave of US mental asylums; began national movement for new methods to treat the mentally ill
New prisons built in Pennsylvania that experimented with the technique of placing prisoners in solitary confinement; these experiments were dropped because of the high suicide rate.
American Colonization Society
Society that thought slavery was bad; challenged slavery w/o challenging property rights of Southerners; would buy land in Africa & get free blacks to move there to establish their own country
Militant effort to do away with slavery; began in the N in the 1700's; becoming a major issue in the 1830's, it dominated politics by the 1840's; Congress became a battle ground between the pro and anti slavery forces
William Lloyd Garrison
Radical abolitionist believed slavery must be viewed from perspective of blacks; demanded immediate emancipation of slaves w/o compensation to slave owners; full citizenship rights
Anti-slavery newspaper written by William Lloyd Garrison; drew attention to abolition, both positive and negative, causing a war of words btw supporters of slavery and those opposed.
One of the most prominent African American figures in the abolitionist movement; escaped from slavery; advocated freedom from slavery & full citizenship rights for all blacks
Black abolitionist who called for the immediate emancipation of slaves; wrote the "Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World."- called for a bloody end to white supremacy; believed that the only way to end slavery was for slaves to physically revolt.
Harriet Tubman and the Underground Railroad
Set up a network of white and African American abolitionists who helped slave escape to freedom in the North or Canada. She was the most famous and successful conductor.
"Driving force" of Southern economy; coined by James Hammond; "upper" South--> "lower"/"deep" South b/c of westward expansion
Climate & geography distinguished from lower south; emerged out of economic crisis in the 1850s by diversifying agriculture, urbanization, and expansion of manufacturing and trade; single-crop; tobacco--> wheat & corn
"Lower south" or "cotton kingdom"; area where the majority of the country's cotton was produced; plagued w/ disease
Whites that owned 20-50 slaves & 800 or more acres; political, social, & economic domination; only about 5% of Southern population
Toussaint L'Ouverture's rebellion in Haiti (1804)
Successful slave rebellion from that increased Southern white paranoia of black resistance
Denmark Vesey rebellion (1822)
Rebellion in S. Carolina discovered before it began; argued slavery violated Christianity and republicanism
Nat Turner rebellion (1831)
Almost 60 whites killed in Virginia; over 100 blacks executed -> increased fear of slave revolt; increased fear of slave revolt; same year as The Liberator began
Belief that the US was destined to stretch across the continent; idealistic, sent by God, not for economic or territorial reasons
"Great American Desert"
Vast arid territory west of the Missouri River & east of the Rocky Mountains; encouraged westward expansion after Stephen Long's Expedition
American adventurers and fur trappers who spent most of their time in the Rocky Mountains; 1st to move into Indian territory, land they would ultimately dominate
Texas Revolution (1836)
(1836) Texan gov. declared independence from Mexico; American settlers proclaimed Texan independence; Sam Houston won independence (treaty rejected by Mexican legislature); Texans wanted annexation by U.S.; not done b/c opposition from northerners and anti-slavery groups; fear of sectional controversy
Westward trail route of wagon trains bearing settlers; collective experience; despite contradicting stories, Indian attacks were extremely rare & more helpful than harmful
Mormon Migration to Utah
Driven from NY b/c of persecution; after Joseph Smith was charged w/treason and killed; led by Brigham Young
Successor to the Mormons after the death of Joseph Smith; responsible for the survival of the sect and its establishment in Salt Lake City, Utah
Under "joint occupation" by US & Britain; increased immigration & interest; missionaries failed to convert residing natives
John C. Fremont
American military officer, explorer, the 1st candidate of the Republican Party for the office of President of the US & 1st presidential candidate of a major party to run on a platform in opposition to slavery; founded & explored CA in preceding decades; "Pathfinder"- mapped Oregon Trail; 1845 report on explorations encouraged westward movement
James K. Polk's Presidency (1845-1849)
Objectives that were achieved: reduction of tariff, re-establishment of Independent Treasury, annexation of Texas, settlement of Oregon question, & acquisition of CA
Mexican War (1846-1848)
Conflict between the US and Mexico that after the US annexation of Texas, which Mexico still considered its own; US troops fought primarily on foreign soil; covered by mass-circulation newspapers; Whigs opposed
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo (1848)
Treaty that ended the Mexican War, granting the U.S. control of Texas, New Mexico, and CA in exchange for $15 million
California Gold Rush
1849 (San Francisco 49ers) Gold discovered in California attracted a rush of people all over the country and world to San Francisco; arrival of the Chinese; increased pressure on fed gov. to establish a stable gov. in CA
Compromise of 1850
CA admitted as a free state, increased fugitive slave laws, slave trade banned in Washington DC; popular sovereignty in most other states from Mexican- American War
Cyrus McCormick reaper
Horse-drawn machine that greatly increased the amount of wheat a farmer could harvest; invented by Cyrus McCormick in 1831 & produced wheat in large quantities.
Antebellum mass immigration (1840's and 50's)
Migration into cities; largest in US history; majority Irish, then Germans b/c of widespread famine in their native countries
Know-Nothings and the American Party
Nativism- opposed immigration; aided in the collapse of the second-party system
Uncle Tom's Cabin (1853)
By Harriet Beecher Stowe- highly influenced England's view on the American Deep South & slavery; novel promoting abolition; intensified sectional conflict.
Fugitive Slave Act
Law that provided for harsh treatment for escaped slaves & for those who helped them; made it a crime to help runaway slaves; allowed for the arrest of escaped slaves in areas where slavery was illegal and required their return to slaveholders; Supreme Court eventually overturned the laws--> South outraged
Anthony Burns incident
Affected by the fugitive slave act after he became a fugitive in Massachusetts; was captured & tried; 1st person in the United States tried under the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850
"Young America" movement
American political and cultural attitude in the mid-19th century that supported ideas like "manifest destiny" & the expansion of democracy westward to distract Americans from slavery issue; formed as a political organization; advocated free trade, expansion southward into the territories, & support for republican movements abroad; became a faction in the Democratic Party in the 1850s
Agreement w/ Mexico that gave the US parts of present-day New Mexico & Arizona in exchange for $10 million; all but completed the continental expansion envisioned by those who believed in Manifest Destiny.
Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854)
Created Nebraska and Kansas as states & gave the ppl in those territories the right to chose to be either a free or slave state through popular sovereignty.; repealed Missouri Compromise; destroyed Whig party & led to emergence of Republican party
Senator from Illinois, author of the Kansas-Nebraska Act & the Freeport Doctrine, argues in favor of popular sovereignty; debated Lincoln prior to the 1860 presidential election
Political ideology of the 1840s that opposed the expansion of slavery in order to allow white farmers to settle in western territories; believed slavery was dangerous b/c it was a threat to whites & the rights of all; believe the South wanted to extend slavery & destroy Northern capitalism--> formed Republican party
Political party that believed in the non-expansion of slavery & consisted of Whigs, N. Democrats, & Free-Soilers in defiance to the Slave Powers
sequence of violent events involving abolitionists & pro-Slavery elements that took place in Kansas-Nebraska Territory; dispute further strained the relations of the North and South, making civil war imminent; Kansas- symbol of conflict
Sack of Lawrence
Heavily armed Pro slavery radicals burned most of the city of Lawrence to the ground, stole their hogs, scattered their women and children.
Abolitionist John Brown and his men killed 5 pro-slavery men in Kansas; response to Sack of Lawrence
Beating of Charles Sumner
Sumner of Massachusetts criticized Bulter of S. Carolina in Senate--> Preston Brooks beat Sumner w/ cane--> angered Northerners
Dred Scott decision (1857)
Ruling by the Supreme Court —reversed by the 14th Amendment in 1868— black Americans were not citizens under the Constitution; the Missouri Compromise (which banned slavery in the territories) was unconstitutional
Lecompton Crisis (1857-1858)
Free-staters refuse to participate in election in Kansas; fraudulent election; opposed by Douglas; constitution resubmitted and rejected by Kansas voters; South angry at Douglas; Kansas admitted as free state
Lincoln Douglas debates
During the race to become Senator Lincoln asked to have multiple debates with Douglas; certain topics of these debates were slavery, how to deal with slavery, and where slavery should be allowed; although Lincoln lost the election to Douglas, he was known throughout the country because of the debates; Douglas said ppl could exclude slavery by not enforcing & protecting slave-owner property--> ppl would not support Douglas for president
John Brown's raid at Harper's Ferry
John Brown's failed scheme to invade the South w/ armed slaves, backed by sponsoring, N. abolitionists; seized the fed. arsenal; Brown & remnants were caught by Robert E. Lee and the US Marines; Brown was hanged; South feared danger if it stayed in Union
Election of 1860
Lincoln, the Republican candidate, won this election b/c the Democratic party was split over slavery; as a result, the South no longer felt like it has a voice in politics and a # of states seceded from the Union.
After Lincoln was elected President and threatened to abolish slavery, the Southern states secceeded from the North; 7 originally seceded, but 4 soon followed.
Confederate States of America
Eventually made up of 11 former states that seceded; Jefferson Davis was the 1st & only president; unable to defeat the North b/c of lack of railroad lines, lack of industry, & inability to get European nations to support their cause.
Abraham Lincoln's presidency (1861-1865)
Civil War: effective commander-in-chief, took advantage of Northern materials, destruction of Confederate armies; ignored parts of the Constitution
Civil War (1861-1865)
total war; Union is perpetual v. liberty before Union; began w/ bombardment of Fort Sumter; Lee surrendered at Appotomax; 600k casualties; legacy expanded federal power and destroyed agrarian south
Union military draft
Passed March 1863; virtually all males eligible to be in army; could escape service by paying gov. or finding replacement; increased voluntary enlistments
New York City draft riot
Reaction to the Union military draft; anti-black Irish Americans burnt down buildings and killed blacks; feared for their jobs; opposition of draft by immigrants & laborers
Lincoln's restriction of civil liberties
Habeas Corpus was suspended; civil law was suspended in those areas of the South under Union Control & placed under martial law; censorship imposed on several newspapers and journalist; restrictions on commerce enacted & enforced; attacked opposition, arrested civilian dissenters
"Copperheads" / Peace Democrats
N. Democrats who opposed the Civil War & sympathized w/ the South; fought against Lincoln, the draft & emancipation
Republican (Civil War) economic legislation
Morrill Tariff; National Banking Act; Homestead Act; Morrill Land Grant Act--> land-grant colleges; Pacific Railway Acts--> 1st transcontinental railroads; Contract Labor Law- import immigration labor; bound northern industrialists & western farmers to Republican party & contributed to rapid postwar expansion of US industrialization
Union financing of war
Taxation (levied taxes on all goods and services); paper currency (greenbacks printed backed by gov.); borrowing American ppl & banks/ war bonds
Drafted 1861; similar to the original; guaranteed sovereignty of the Confederate states & prohibited the Confederate Congress from enacting protective tariffs & from supporting internal improvements; specifically sanctioned slavery; president had 6-year terms; line-item veto
Confederate military draft
Began in Apr. 1862; 1st in US history; subjected all white males to service for 3 years unless substitute was provided or owned slaves; intense opposition; repealed 1863; reintroduced in 1864 & allowed slaves to join; 1 white man for every 20 slaves was left on plantations
Confederate financing of war
Used specie money backed by gold and silver; paper money was overprinted & not uniform--> mass inflation (9000%); small/unstable banking system; hard to request funds from states, income tax, & borrowing unable to raise significant funds
Foreign event involving Union seizure of British ship with Confederate diplomats; tensions btw Britain & US eased w/ Lincoln's negotiations
Battle of Gettysburg and Siege of Vicksburg
Turning points of Civil War in 1863; G: bloodiest battle where Lee's army never recovered from casualties; V: placed Mississippi River under control of Union & split Confederacy in 1/2
Election of 1864
5 political parties supported candidates for the presidency: War Democrats, Peace Democrats, Copperheads, Radical Republicans, & National Union Party; each political party offered a diff. point of view on how the war should be run & what should be done to the Confederate states after the war; National Union Party joined w/ Lincoln, who won the election on the recent northern victories against the South; decided that the Confederacy would lose & that slavery was dead
William T. Sherman and the March to the Sea
Campaign from Atlanta to the Atlantic Ocean; Union army destroyed everything on path; "forty acres and a mule" legend
All-out war that affects civilians at home as well as soldiers in combat; military, economic, political, & social war; destruction of resources was vital
Series of laws passed by fed gov. designed to liberate slaves in seceded states; authorized Union seizure of rebel property, and stated that all slaves who fought with Confederate military services were freed of further obligations to their masters; virtually emancipation act of all slaves in Confederacy
Issued by Lincoln on Sept. 22, 1862; declared that all slaves in the rebellious Confederate states would be free; not applied to border states; gov. actively enlists blacks into Union military; abolition of slavery was a Union war goal
Civil War's effects on women
New employment opportunities: clerks, factories, nursing, teaching, etc.; beginning of national woman's suffrage moment
Period after the Civil War in the US when the southern states were reorganized and reintegrated into the Union; struggle over status of former Confederate states & political, social, economic position of freedmen
Fed. agency set up to help former slaves after the Civil War; focus was to provide food, medical care, administer justice, manage abandoned & confiscated property, regulate labor, and establish schools.
Presidential Reconstruction plans (Lincoln and Johnson)
L: 10% Plan used to encourage people to join Republican party; pocket-vetoed Congress's Wade-Davis Bill; J: appointed provisional governors, allowing former Confederate officials to immediately regain power; amnesty to Southerners who took allegiance; rapid readmission of Confederate states
Laws passed in the South after the civil war aimed at controlling freedmen & enabling plantation owners to exploit African American workers; denied all blacks rights; guaranteed white supremacy
Election of 1866
Congressional election; radical republicans took control of Congress & started Congressional Reconstruction--> Congress could enact its own plan over Johnson's veto
Congressional (Radical) Reconstruction plans
Military districts in south; respond with Wade-Davis Bill - authorized President to appoint provisional governor for each conquered state; new state constitutions that renounce secession as illegal, abolish slavery, disenfranchise Confederate leaders; repudiate Confederate debts
Declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens & are guaranteed equal protection of the laws; citizenship by birth & naturalization; prohibited state gov. from infringing on equal rights; gave black Americans citizenship & legal equality; still allowed the North to prohibit black suffrage
Citizens cannot be denied the right to vote b/c of race, color , or precious condition of servitude
Lucy Stone vs. Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton
15th amendment caused split in women's movement b/c did not give women's suffrage
10 southern states were divided into 5 military districts in 1867; register voters; Congress sovereign in all governing decisions in South; ratification of Southern state constitutions only need majority of actual voters rather than those registered; black voters registered
Andrew Johnson Impeachment
Attempted against President in 1868; power struggle b/t him and Congress; President removed cabinet officer w/o Senate approval & interfered w/ Congressional reconstruction; crippled his presidency
Reconstruction southern state governments
Reality after Civil War; unqualified blacks held gov. positions but never achieved dominance; corruption existed but no more than during Gilded Age; increased taxes & public debt - to pay for public schools; new constitutions of southern states - established free public school abolished property & qualifications for voting/jury duty
Northern whites who moved to the South & served as Republican leaders during reconstruction
"Forty acres and a mule"
Sherman's Special Field Order; slogan promising blacks (freedman) forty acres of land & a mule to plow with ; failed reconstruction attempt
Dunning School of historical interpretation
Historian William Dunning wrote Reconstruction was oppressive in South
Ku Klux Klan
Started by Nathan Bedford Forrest; secret organization that used terrorist tactics in an attempt to restore white supremacy in Southern states after the Civil War.
Force Acts (reconstruction)
Gave expanded power to fed. authorities to stop KKK violence & to protect civil rights of citizens in the South.
Mississippi Plan (1875)
Advocated white Democratic Southerners must gain political power by any means
White Supremacy terrorism (reconstruction)
Reduced tensions b/t poor whites & bourbons; race unity; KKK prevented black citizens & white republicans from voting through open intimidation; Mississippi Plan
Compromise of 1877
Deal that settled the 1876 presidential election contest between Rutherford Hayes (Rep) & Samuel Tilden (Dem.); Hayes was awarded presidency in exchange for the permanent removal of fed. troops from the South--> ended Reconstruction
Largely former slave owners who were the bitterest opponents of the Republican program in the South; staged a major counterrevolution to "redeem" the south by taking back southern state gov.; foundation rested on the idea of racism & white supremacy; waged and aggressive assault on African Americans; political power to white Democrats; lower taxation, lower gov. spending, lower education; advances of Reconstruction gov. dismantled
System of farming in which a person rents land to farm from a planter & pays in crops or $
Sharecropping and crop-lien system
System that allowed farmers to get more credit; used harvested crops to pay back loans.
Began in 1865, by 1890 it had bought out its competitors & created American Tobacco Company ; 1 market that South controlled; 90% of US tobacco production
Southern voting discrimination laws
Attempts at disenfranchisement of blacks; included poll tax, grandfather clause, literacy tests; 1890s discrimination in voting; loopholes for whites
Jim Crow laws
Laws designed to enforce segregation of blacks from whites in all public facilities & social interaction; white supremacy ideology
Slaughterhouse cases, U.S. v Cruikshank and Civil Rights Cases
Ruled that the 14th Amendment did not create a new set of national citizenship rights; did not give US gov. power to suppress ordinary crimes, only when states denied rights; did not prohibit private organizations from discriminating
Plessy vs Ferguson
A case that was brought to challenge the legality of segregation; court ruled that separate accommodations did not deprive blacks of rights if accommodations were equal
"Lost Cause" of the Confederacy
Myth: Civil War fought over states' rights & creation of independent nation; slavery was not a major cause; slavery would have been eventually eliminated; unity b/t North & South to exclusion of blacks
Booker T. Washington
African American progressive who supported segregation & demanded that African American better themselves individually to achieve equality
Argument put forward by Booker T. Washington that African-Americans should not focus on civil rights or social equality but concentrate on economic self-improvement; should not challenge segregation
Attacked "Atlanta Compromise" in The Souls for the Black Folk; believed that African Americans should strive for full rights immediately; demanded restoration of civil rights by "ceaseless agitation"
Niagara Movement (1905)
Founded by W.E.B. DuBois to promote the education of African Americans in the liberal arts; end segregation & discrimination in unions, courts, & public accommodations; equality of opportunity