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Lawrenson's first test in ap gov (ch 1 and 2), so we all can study for midterms

Which characteristic of American politics is concerned with the rights of the minority?
A) the election process
B) the Congressional policy-making process
C) interest group bargaining and compromising on political issues
D) the president altering his policy proposals in response to public opinion
E) the Bill of Rights guarantee of civil liberties

E

The system of governance set up in the Constitutional Republic tends to:
A) be rather efficient in producing political results
B) encourage direct democracy
C) Centralize power
D) Favor the status quo as opposed to political change
E) represent an unwritten accumulation of tradition and precedents

D

Which of the following best illustrates the elite theory?
A) The fact that more than 20,000 special interest groups lobby Congress each year
B) the idea that because of mass media, Americans are increasingly isolated from their government, jeopardizing the strength of traditional groups in society
C) The idea that contending interests are so strong within the United States that government is often weakened
D) the idea that large interest groups dominate government decision-making
E) The idea that a small group of wealthy individuals dominate government policy-making

E

Which of the following statements about the Declaration of Independence is correct?
A) it was written primarily by George Washington and James Madison
B) It was an important innovation in political philosophy
C) it was a rejection of the philosophy of John Locke
D) it drew upon the works of Thomas Hobbes
E) it was a lawyer's brief justifying a revolution

E

The idea of limiting the role of government to protect "life, liberty, and property" is generally attributed to
A) Karl Marx
B) Thomas Jefferson
C) Thomas Hobbes
D) John Locke
E) Alexander Hamilton

D

All of the following were weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation EXCEPT
A) the national government had too much power
B) the national government could not resolve state boundary disputes
C) currency was not accepted outside of local areas
D) the military could not put down even small rebellions
E) there was no national judicial system

A

All of the following were concerns about the Articles of Confederation that led to the calling of the Constitutional Convention of 1787 EXCEPT
A) dissatisfaction over safeguards of individual rights and liberties
B) fear for the stability of the central government
C) desire to promote trade among states
D) the need to give the central government the power to levy taxes
E) dissatisfaction with the central government's ability to provide for national defense

A

The debates between Federalists and Anti-Federalists were primarily about which of the following issues?
A) the right of the people to rebel
B) the scope and power of the central government
C) the existence of slavery
D) the need to establish a standard currency
E) the representation of large and small states

B

According to the pluralist theorists, which of the following (can be more than one) statements describe the American political system?
I. the public interest is normally served in the U.S. through the process of bargaining and compromise
II. organized interest groups fairly shape the public agenda by broadly representing the interests of Americans
III. multiple small groups among the wealthiest one percent of the public are in some way responsible for most policymaking
IV. Policymaking reflects the desire of those who control many of the largest corporations in the U.S.

I and II

Under America's first constitution, the Articles of Confederation,
A) the national government dominated state governments
B) the executive branch had more power than Congress
C) Congress was a unicameral body
D) states were represented in Congress proportionally according to population
E) reflected the Founding Father's belief that a national standing army was necessary

C

What was the biggest problem with the Articles of Confederation?
A) the national government imposed heavy taxes on the wealthy
B) the states did not have enough power
C) the national government did not have the power to regulate intrastate commerce
D) individual states could not control their economies
E) the national government could not lay and collect taxes

E

Interest groups and political parties both promote U.S. democracy by
A) expressing detailed, ideologically distinct programs
B) centralizing public authority
C) linking citizens to the political process
D) increasing domination of the political process
E) lobbying members of Congress

C

A representative democracy is justified by all of the following characteristics except that
A) the people have limited information and expertise
B) the people cannot choose among competing leadership groups
C) the people may decide large issues on the basis of fleeting passions
D) the people may respond to popular demagogues
E) direct democracy is impractical

B

All of the following issues were decided at the Constitutional Convention EXCEPT:
A) representation in the legislature
B) method of electing the President
C) voting qualifications of the electorate
D) congressional powers to override a presidential veto
E) qualifications for members of the House and Senate

C

The importance of Shay's Rebellion to the development of the U.S. Constitution was that it
A) revealed the necessity of both adding the Bill of Rights to the Constitution and creating a new system of checks and balances
B) indicated that a strong, constitutionally designed national government was needed to protect property and maintain order
C) convinced that delegates attending the Constitutional Convention to accept the Connecticut Plan
D) reinforced the idea that slavery should be outlawed in the new Constitution
E) demonstrated the intensity of antiratification sentiment within the thirteen states

B

Which of the following Founders was the "principal architect" of the Constitution?
A) Edmund Randolph
B) George Washington
C) Thomas Jefferson
D) Alexander Hamilton
E) James Madison

E

What is the result of the Connecticut (Great) Compromise?
A) both the House and the Senate directly represent the population as a whole
B) the House represents the interests of the states, while the Senate represents individuals within the district
C) the Senate represents state interests, while the House mirrors the population proportionally
D) the electoral college vote does not always mirror the popular vote
E) large states have more power in the Senate than small states

C

Which of the following constitutional principles most directly addresses the relationship between the national and state governments?
A) Federalism
B) The Bill of Rights
C) Separation of Powers
D) Representation
E) Checks and Balances

A

Which of the following statements best describes most of the Founding Fathers?
A) they were older, wealthy, and very experienced politicians
B) they were relatively young, wealthy, and well- educated
C) they were representative of the population as a whole
D) they were radicals who favored states' rights and the protection of individual liberties
E) they were young and inexperienced

B

The system of checks and balances in the Constitution means that
A) a majority can easily manipulate the system, but a minority cannot
B) changes in government policy can be made with relative ease, with few obstacles to stop a popular new force
C) we have a direct democracy, with all branches equally accessible to strong public pressure
D) change usually comes slowly, if at all, and moderation and compromise are typical in our political system
E) each branch of government has its own powers independent of the other

D

The president nominates Supreme Court justices, who must be confirmed by the Senate. Once appointed, those justices usually serve for life terms. This is an example of which of the following (more than one answer)
I. separation of powers
II. federalism
III. checks and balances
IV. judicial review

I and III

What was the result of the Connecticut (Great) Compromise?
A) States were represented in the upper house, and individuals were represented in the lower house
B) All members of Congress were selected by direct election
C) individuals were given proportional representation in both the House and the Senate
D) individuals were represented in the upper house, and states were represented in the lower house
E) slaves were not counted in the census

A

Under the original Constitution, which branch or branches of government were selected directly by the citizens?
I. the president and the vice-president
II. the Supreme Court
III. the Senate
IV. the House of Representatives

IV

How does the Constitution provide an executive check on the judicial branch?
A) by allowing the president to remove Supreme Court justices from office
B) by permitting bureaucrats to ignore a decision of the Supreme Court
C) by nominating federal judges, subject to Senate confirmation
D) by appointing federal judges
E) by allowing the president to propose a bill to Congress to overturn a decision by the Supreme Court

C

James Madison believed that various groups, or factions would compete within our democratic system. The result would be effective policy-making. Madison's theory can best be described as
A) hyperpluralism
B) Marxism
C) bureaucratic elitism
D) pluralism
E) elitism

D

Which of the following is NOT a criticism of separation of powers?
A) it creates gridlock in policy-making
B) it makes it difficult for the government to act decisively in times of crisis
C) it results in prompt, but hasty, decision-making
D) it makes it difficult to stimulate economic growth
E) it damages our position of international leadership

C

The Constitution's writers carefully drafted a document that would create
A) strong states and a weak central government
B) the ability to adapt to changing time
C) weakened power in the state and national government
D) a dominant national government with no active participation from the states
E) an equal distribution of power between the states and national government

B

What is the basis of James Madison's argument in the Federalist Paper No. 10?
A) the government can eliminate the causes of faction
B) factions are dangerous and must be destroyed
C) political parties should be encouraged to form so that all viewpoints are represented
D) a balanced government can control factions and prevent one faction from gaining too much power
E) state government will prevent factions from forming

D

The Three-Fifths Compromise at the Constitutional Convention
A) allowed cloture to be invoked, ending a filibuster in the Senate, with the support of all Senators
B) prescribed the proportion of states required to ratify a constitutional amendment
C) provided a formula by which slaves would be counted for apportioning the House of Representatives
D) established the percentage of votes necessary for electors to be chosen under the original provisions of the Electoral College system
E) established the percentage of members of the House required to pass a bill raising revenue

C

Any law passed by legislature that punishes an individual without a trial, under the Constitution, violates the Constitutional concept of
A) a bill of attainder
B) ex post facto
C) double jeopardy
D) eminent domain
E) habeas corpus

A

The outcome of a conflict between the Constitution and the states is determined by
A) The Great (Connecticut) Compromise
B) The Supremacy clause
C) Federalist Paper No. 10
D) Judicial Review
E) Expost facto laws

B

A law goes into effect declaring that a business practice that has been legal in the past will be illegal in the future, and the law is made retroactive. Why would the Supreme Court likely rule the new law unconstitutional?
A) it would constitute a bill of attainder
B) it would violate double jeopardy
C) it would be an ex post facto law
D) it would bypass grand jury indictment
E) it would violate the concept of eminent domain

C

Which of the following statement about the relationship between Congress and the Supreme Court is valid?
A) Congress can impeach a Supreme Court justice
B) a decision can be overturned by a two-thirds vote of both houses
C) nominations by the Supreme Court must be approved by Congress
D) a constitutional amendment is the only way Congress can overturn a Supreme Court decision
E) Congress can expand the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court through legislation

A

The supremacy clause in the Constitution states that
A) Congress is the most important branch of the government
B) the federal government has more power than the states
C) the armed forces are under the control of civilian authority
D) the Constitution, federal laws, and treaties are the supreme law of the land
E) the president has the supreme power as Commander-in-Chief

D

Evidence that the framers of the Constitution may have distrusted the common people is
A) Senate approval of presidential appointments
B) money bills are introduced in the House of Representatives
C) the method by which the president is elected
D) the age and citizenship requirements for the Senate
E) the apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives

C

An election involving more than two candidates in which the person who receives the most votes is the winner is called
A) a proportional election
B) an indirect election
C) a simple election
D) a majority election
E) a plurality election

E

The purpose of the system of checks and balances in the Constitution is to ensure that
A) the federal courts are independent
B) the president has the power to control Congress
C) the military is under civilian control
D) one branch does not dominate the others
E) Congress has a role in foreign policy

D

Which of the following statements best characterize the attitudes of the framers of the Constitution toward slavery?
A) they were all slave owners and determined to preserve slavery
B) they supported the expansion of slavery beyond the thirteen states
C) there was sentiment to limit slavery, but political considerations made that impossible
D) they believed that if slavery was not mentioned, ratification would be harder
E) they preferred the gradual emancipation of all slaves

C

The Constitution prohibits the states from doing all of the following EXCEPT
A) determining qualifications for voting
B) coining money
C) imposing tariffs on goods from foreign countries
D) giving sanctuary to runaway slaves
E) granting titles of nobility

A

Which of the following is an example of checks and balances, as established by the Constitution?
A) a requirement that states lower their drinking age to eighteen as a condition of receiving funds through federal highway grant programs
B) media criticism of public officials during an election campaign period
C) the Supreme Court's ability to overturn a lower court decision
D) the requirement that presidential appointments to the Supreme Court be approved by the Senate
E) the election of the President by the electoral college rather than by direct election

D

The reserved powers of the state governments can best be described as those powers
A) not specifically granted to the national government or denied to the states
B) implied in the Fifth Amendment
C) listed specifically in the Tenth Amendment
D) exercised by both national and state governments
E) granted to states as part of the implied powers doctrine

A

Which of the following is true under the system of checks and balances?
A) the Supreme Court can overrule the President's policy proposals
B) the Senate must ratify treaties negotiated by the President before they become law
C) a bill becomes a law when the House and the Senate pass, and the Supreme Court declares unconstitutional
D) the Supreme Court can remove members of Congress, and Congress can impeach the President
E) the House of Representatives appoints justices to the Supreme Court and the Senate approves the appointments

B

Which of the following was the most important effect of replacing the Articles of Confederation with the Constitution of 1787?
A) the protection of free speech
B) the guarantee of states' rights
C) the establishment of direct democracy
D) the creation of a strong national government
E) the establishment of judicial review

D

Evidence that the framers of the Constitution may have distrusted the common people is
A) Senate approval of presidential appointments
B) money bills are introduced in the House of Representatives
C) the method by which the president is elected
D) the age of citizenship requirements for the Senate
E) the apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives

C

Which of the following is filled when an imprisoned person wants to be brought before a judge so the judge can determine whether his or her imprisonment is legal?
A) Habeas corpus petition
B) Bill of attainder
C) Amicus curiae brief
D) Writ of certiorari
E) Ex post facto

A

Which of the following is argued by James Madison in The Federalist paper number 10?
A) the elimination of the causes of factionalism is the best protection against tyranny
B) a system of republican representation helps to limit the excesses of factionalism
C) small republics are better able to ensure individual liberty than are large republics
D) the presence of a few large factions helps protect the rights of the minorities
E) participatory democracy is the surest way to prevent tyranny

B

The __________, offered as one possible scheme at the Constitutional Convention, called for each state to be equally represented in Congress
A) New Jersey Plan
B) Three-Fifths Compromise
C) Northwest Ordinance
D) Virginia Plan
E) Connecticut Compromise

A

How did the Antifederalists differ from the Federalists?
A) the Antifederalists wanted a stronger central government
B) the Federalists wanted to protect state sovereignty
C) the Antifederalists had a more positive view of human nature
D) the Antifederalists believed that a strong central government would be too distant from the people
E) the Antifederalists were opposed to representative democracy

D

All of the following were Anti-Federalist arguments against the ratification of the Constitution EXCEPT:
A) a charge that it was a class-based document
B) a claim that it would weaken the power of the states
C) a charge that it was a betrayal of the American Revolution
D) a charge that it would benefit creditors
E) a claim that the Bill of Rights was unnecessary

E

Which of the following most accurately describes The Federalist Papers?
A) the Federalist party platform during the presidency of John Adam, the first Federalist president
B) a popular anti-British booklet of the pre-revolutionary era
C) a collection of essays arguing the merits of the Constitution
D) a series of congressional acts defining the relationship between the federal and state governments
E) the laws under which the South was governed during the Reconstruction

C

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