MONOZYGOTIC TWINS (aka identical twins)
Twins that result when one fertilized egg divides into separate embryos
SPONTANEOUS ABORTION (MISCARRIAGE)
Nonelective abortion that occurs within the first 20 weeks of pregnancy
Abortion that occurs when the cervix dilates and part of the placenta detaches from the uterus resulting in moderate to heavy bleeding
Abortion that occurs when the fetus is passed but the placenta is retained in the uterus
Results when all the fetal tissue is passed, the cervix closes, and minimal bleeding occurs
THERAPEUTIC ABORTION (TAB)
The termination of the pregnancy to save the life and preserve the health of the mother, or when the fetus has a serious developmental or hereditary disorder
ELECTIVE ABORTION (EAB)
Abortion performed at the request of the mother but not for reason of maternal risk or fetal disease
Mulberry-shaped mass of blastomeres that forms when the zygote splits; develops into the blastula
The outermost layer of cells of the blastocyst that attaches the fertilized ovum to the uterine wall and that becomes the placenta and fetal membranes
HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTRIPIN (hCG)
A hormone produced by the placenta that maintains the corpus luteum during pregnancy, the chemical that pregnancy kits identify in order to determine pregnancy
Inner layer of the fetal membranes, originating from inside the blastocyst, surrounding the fetus
FETAL MEMBRANES (bag of waters)
Any membrane that functions for the protection or nourishment of respiration or excretion of a developing fetus
Fluid formed by the amnion, consisting of about 98% water, and containing glucose, proteins, urea, lanugo (fine fetal hair) and vernix caseosa
A white, cheesy substance covering the fetus's skin to protect it from the amniotic fluid
HUMAN PLACENTAL LACTOGEN (hPL)
Hormone that stimulates changes in maternal metabolism during pregnancy
A hormone produced by the placenta that causes softening in the collagen connective tissue of the symphysis pubis and sacroiliac joint
White gelatinous tissue making up the umbilical cord that cushions the vessels inside the cord.
PRE-EMBRYONIC STAGE (Stage I)
From fertilization thru 14 days; the time when the fertilized ovum travels thru the fallopian tube, differentiates into trophoblast and embryonic disc, and attaches to the endometrium
EMBRYONIC STAGE (stage II)
From week 3 thru 8 of fetal development; stage in which all body systems are formed
Twins that occur from two eggs fertilized by two sperm; they generally have two separate placentas, amnions, chorians and could be different genders; dizygotic twins
FETAL STAGE (stage III)
From weeks 9 thru 38 to 40; during this stage, all body systems are refined and begin to function
Two arteries in which blood flows from the internal iliac arteries in the fetus to the placenta
Vessel that brings clean, oxygenated fetal blood and nutrients back to the fetus from the placenta
A vein passing thru the liver and connecting the left umbilical vein with the inferior vena cava of the fetus
A membranous sac attached to an embryo, providing early nourishment and functioning as the circulatory system of the embryo before internal circulation begins
A substance that decreases the surface tension of fluid inside the alveoli, allowing the lungs to expand
The hardening or calcification of soft tissue into a bonelike material, marking the transition from embryo to fetus
A sharp upward pushing against the uterine wall with a finger inserted into the vagina; used for diagnosing pregnancy by feeling the return impact of the displaced fetus
Sound occurring at the same rate as the maternal pulse and caused by increased maternal blood flow to the uterus
Sound occurring at the fetal heart rate, caused by fetal blood flowing thru the umbilical cord
BRAXTON HICKS CONTRACTIONS
Irregular, painless contractions occurring throughout pregnancy, also known as false labor
A translucent yellow fluid rich in protein, antibodies and other substances to meet the needs of the newborn, produced in the breasts
SUPINE HYPOTENSIVE SYNDROME
Reduction in blood pressure that occurs when the mother lies supine; the heavy uterus presses on the inferior vena cava, resulting in reduced blood flow back to the right atrium
PHYSIOLOGIC ANEMIA OF PREGNANCY
Drop in iron that results from hemodilution, evidenced by a hematocrit of 34% to 40%; the number of white blood cells increases beginning in the second trimester.
STRIAE GRAVIDARUM (aka Stretch marks)
marks that occur when the underlying connective tissue separates during periods of rapid growth
A non invasive test used to outline the shape and determine the consistency of various organs and diagnose pregnancy; it can also be used to determine the exact position, size, and gender of the fetus and to identify some developmental anomalies
The withdrawal of amniotic fluid thru a needle inserted into the abdomen and the uterus as a means of gathering data about the developing fetus
PERCUTANEOUS UMBILICAL CORD SAMPLING
A test similar to amniocentesis done in the second and third trimesters in which the physician locates the fetal parts, identifies the placenta and umbilical cord by ultrasound, and aspirates fetal blood for analysis of chemical content; the test is useful in diagnosing inherited blood disorders, detecting fetal infection and determining acid-base balance.
A serious anemia, usually resulting from maternal antibodies to Rh-positive fetal blood
CHORIONIC VILLUS SAMPLING
Test in which a sample of placental tissue is taken from a woman's abdomen and placental tissue is aspirated thru a needle; the tissue, formed from the zygote reflects the genetic makeup of the fetus
A test that assess five variables; fetal breathing, fetal movement, fetal tone, amniotic fluid volume, and fetal reaction
aka "Spontaneous abortion". Nonelective abortion that occurs within the first 20 weeks of pregnancy
A method used to determine date of birth taking the first day of the last menstrual period (LMP), subtracting 3 months, and adding 7 days
A supportive companion who accompanies the woman thru birth, providing physical and emotional support and information, and advocating for the woman and the family
The outer layer of the blastocyst, which is involved in implantation, hormone secretion, membrane and placental formation, is called what?
INNER SAC (Amniotic cavity)
The Trophoblast splits into two parts, the Chorion and the Amnion. The Amnion is referred to as what?
The Trophoblast splits into two parts, the Chorion and the Amnion. The chorion is referred to as what?
ENDODERM (inner layer)
The Respiratory system, GI system, Liver, Pancreas, Bladder & Urethra are body systems which develop in which layer of the Embryoblast?
MESODERM (Middle layer)
The Muscular & skeletal system, heart, blood, blood vessels, spleen, urinary (renal system) and reproductive system are body systems which develop in which layer of the Embryoblast?
ECTODERM (Outer layer)
The Skin, Nervous system, Sense organs, mouth and anus are body systems which develop in which layer of the Embryoblast?
Tissue that lines the uterine wall during pregnancy. The endometrium is called this once the fertilized egg is implanted into it.
7 & 5 DAYS
About ___(#) days after ovulation, or ___ (#) days after fertilization, the trophoblast burrows into the endometrium. Usually in the upper part of the uterus
The outer fetal membrane is the ____, formed from the trophoblast. The ____ villi degenerate, except for those attached to the uterine wall, which become the maternal side of the placenta.
AMNIOTIC SAC (bag of water)
The Chorion (outer sac) and the Amnion (inner sac) together form the what?
This sac surrounds the amnion (inner sac that houses the fetus) and attaches to the uterine wall by villi, which become (the villi) the maternal side of the placenta
This provides protective cushion, stabilizes baby temp, hydration, equalizes pressure, allows for growth, allow limbs not to adhear to skin or other membranes.
HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin)
This stimulates the corpus luteum to produce estrogen & progesterone
This is formed by week 3, functions by week 11-12, organ for 02 exchange between fetus & mom. Has 2 sides
What hormone maintains uterine lining for implantation & reduces uterine contractions to prevent spontaneous abortion?
What hormone stimulates uterine growth, increases blood flow to uterine vessels, and stimulates breast ducts to prepare for lactation?
this causes the corpus luteum to persist and continue production of estrogen and progesterone and to sustain the pregnancy. Is detectable in maternal blood as soon as implantation occurs (usually 8-10 days after fertilization)
This hormone causes changes in maternal metabolism and causes decreased insulin sensitivity and utilization of glucose by mother. Helps make more glucose available to baby & also helps mother to prepare for lactation.
What, in the umbilical cord, carries unoxygenated blood, CO2 and waste products from the fetus to Mom for excretion?
ARTERY, VEIN, ARTERY
What does the women's name AVA refer to when thinking about the umbilical cord?
By what week can the sex of fetus be determined, blood forms in marrow & kidneys are able to secrete urine?
By what week does the face look human, meconium is present in bowel, heart muscle well developed, sensory organs differentiated?
By what week does Primitive respiratory movements begin, heartbeat can be heard with fetoscope, quickening occurs, brain grossly formed, vernix caseoa is formed, lanugo present?
By what week is the body lean, but well proportioned, lecithin (respiratory marker) begins to appear in amniotic fluid and ability to hear
By what week does subcutaneous fat collect, fetus has fingernails & toenails, taste present, aware of sounds outside mother's body
By what week is the skin pink, rounded body, lanugo on shoulder & upper body only, vernix caseosa scant & fetus receives antibodies from mother?
In this month, there is rapid cell growth, formation of heart & brain, growth head to tail (cephalacaudal), differientated lobes in brain present, growth is general to specific and proximal to distal? Size is rice grain.
In this month fetus has large head, all major organs are formed, paddle shaped hands, heart pumps small amounts of blood, sensitive to teratogens
Lungs are developed but not enough alveoli to maintain gas exchange outside the uterus, what week?
Lack of this in the diet (of the mother) can cause Neural Tube defects, spina bifida & cleft lip
Subjective signs the mother experiences during pregnancy. Could mean pregnancy, could mean something else.
A bluish-purple discoloration of the cervix and vagina. Caused by increased blood supply.
This category (signs of pregnancy) means mother might be pregnant. They include: Positive pregnancy test, Ballottement, Uterine Changes: Chadwick's Sign (bluish color), Hegar's sign (softening of lower uterine segment), Goodell's sign (softening of cervix)
This category (signs of pregnancy) means the mother IS pregnant. All signs have to do with the fetus. Fetal heart tones (110-160), Visualization of fetus (Ultrasound) & Fetal movement felt by examiner.
1ST DAY OF LNMP, COUNT BACK 3 MONTHS, ADD 7 DAYS
What is the formula used in Nagele's rule for determining Estimated Date of Delivery?
MCDONALD'S TECHNIQUE (aka Shirodkar)
This method of determining the estimated date of delivery only applies between weeks 18 & 30. - Measurement of the pregnant uterus by placing a centimeter tape on the abdomen and following the curvature of the abdominal surface from the pubic bone margin to the top of the uterine mass. This procedure is often performed by healthcare professionals, generally in the third trimester, to determine fetal growth retardation.
The Vaginal secretions increase in pregnancy. pH is more acidic. Higher glycogen levels, which promotes candida albicans. This causes what?
In addition to breast tenderness, some women notice small goosebump-like raised areas on the areola of your breast These are called ________ _______. During pregnancy these glands enlarge and they remain enlarged while breast-feeding.
This becomes a temporary abdominal organ during pregnancy. Capacity is 5000 ml (fetus, placenta & amniotic fluid). Grows approx 1cm per week.
This is formed to prevent ascent of organisms into the uterus during pregnancy. Blocks cervical opening to seal the cervix to keep baby from undue harm (and pathogens)
Amenorrhea, Abdominal enlargement, Breast Changes, N & V, Fatigue, Urinary Frequency & Quickening. These are all _____ signs of pregnancy.
Hegar's sign, Uterine changes/enlargement, Positive pregnancy test, Ballotment, Chadwick's sign & Goodell's sign. These are all ____ signs of pregnancy.
Fetal movement felt by examiner, Visualize fetus on ultrasound, Ascultating fetal heart rate. These are all ____ signs of pregnancy.
Increase in BP in pregnant mother is NEVER normal. If fact, it will actually ____ slightly, due to progesterone relaxing the arteries/veins. This decreases the venous return from the legs.
In maternal cardiovascular system, the RBC, WBC, Clotting & Blood flow to the uterus and kidneys will ______.
This is caused by the blood (in pregnant mother) increasing in volume. There is an increase in plasma blood volume, but only slight increase in RBC's.
Expectant mother should be encouraged to lie on what side? This will increase blood flow to mom's heart & OS & Blood flow to fetus.
Vena Cava is suppressed by the uterus while lying on back (in Supine Hypotensive Syndrome). This will decrease blood return to the _____ atrium. It will decrease blood pressure and client will be light headed.
Maternal Respiratory System. Oxygen consumption increased by ____%. Respiration becomes deeper, but rate does not (but can) increase.
this can occur until fetus descends into the pelvis because the baby pushes on the diaphragm.
Increased _____ causes edema, or swelling of mucous membranes of nose, pharynx, mouth and trachea (can have a voice change and bloody noses)
Maternal Renal system. Glomerular infiltration _____ and Tubular reabsorption _______, because Mom is excreting for the fetus too! This makes the mother susceptible to UTI's, due to the urinary frequency.
DEHYDRATION & ELECTROLYTE IMBALANCE
You need to make sure to prevent this in Pregnant Mom due to Morning sickness
This increase in Lumbar curve will be present in Maternal Musculoskeletal system, due to increased size & weight of uterus (out front). Will cause back aches.
Linea Nigra, Hyperactive sweat glands, hair growth altered, Choalsma (mask of pregnancy) & Striae Gravidarum are all _____ condition of the Pregnant mother.
Craving to eat substances that are not food. Ie: dirt, clay, chalk, glue, ice, starch or hair. Anemia may be the cause.
N & V, Increased vaginal discharge, fatigue, backache, constipation & hemorrhoids. These are all _____ signs in pregnancy.
Sudden gush of fluid from vagina, vaginal bleeding, abdominal pain, hyperemesis, epigastric pain (GH), edema with sudden weight gain, severe headache, blurred vision or dizziness, painful urination or reduced urine output, chills w/fever (over 100.4). These are all______ in pregnancy
Epigastric pain, severe persistant headache, blurred vision or dizziness, reduced urine output are all signs of what?
Severe persistent headache and reduced urine output can be signs of what hypertensive condition?
Each (of the five variables, H/R, Breathing, Body movements, Fetal Tone & Amniotic Fluid Volume) of the Biophysical profile is worth how many points?
The beat in the fetal H/R from baseline for 15-20 seconds (in a Nonstress Test) should be what? This is called Fetal Acceleration
SLEEPING, INADEQUATE OXEGENATION & BLOOD FLOW
Non reactiveness on a Fetal Nonstress Test can be due to what?
1st & 28 WEEKS
A maternal hemoglobin lab test should be done at the ___ prenatal visit & at ___ weeks.
INDIRECT COOMB'S TEST
This will be done @ 28 weeks for the RH negative mother. Checks for contamination of fetal blood into mom's blood.