PN2150 CHAPTER 6 Fetal Development & Pregnancy

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ZYGOTE

Fertilized egg

MULTIFETAL PREGNANCY

A pregnancy with more than one fetus

MONOZYGOTIC TWINS (aka identical twins)

Twins that result when one fertilized egg divides into separate embryos

KARYOTYPE

A picture analysis of the chromosomes

TRISOMY

Three chromosomes at position 21

SPONTANEOUS ABORTION (MISCARRIAGE)

Nonelective abortion that occurs within the first 20 weeks of pregnancy

THREATENED ABORTION

Vaginal spotting noted with a closed cervix

INEVITABLE ABORTION

Abortion that occurs when the cervix dilates and part of the placenta detaches from the uterus resulting in moderate to heavy bleeding

INCOMPLETE ABORTION

Abortion that occurs when the fetus is passed but the placenta is retained in the uterus

COMPLETE ABORTION

Results when all the fetal tissue is passed, the cervix closes, and minimal bleeding occurs

MISSED ABORTION

Condition in which the fetus dies, but spontaneous abortion does not occur

THERAPEUTIC ABORTION (TAB)

The termination of the pregnancy to save the life and preserve the health of the mother, or when the fetus has a serious developmental or hereditary disorder

ELECTIVE ABORTION (EAB)

Abortion performed at the request of the mother but not for reason of maternal risk or fetal disease

CRANIOFACIAL

Relating to the head and face

ANOMOLIES

Abnormal development of an organ or structure

TERATOGENS

Chemical that can cause abnormal fetal development

SALPINGITIS

Infection of the fallopian tubes

MORULA

Mulberry-shaped mass of blastomeres that forms when the zygote splits; develops into the blastula

BLASTOCYST

Stage of embryo formation ion which cells have formed a two-layer ball

TROPHOBLAST

The outermost layer of cells of the blastocyst that attaches the fertilized ovum to the uterine wall and that becomes the placenta and fetal membranes

EMBRYONIC DISC

The part of the inner cell mass of a blastocyst that will become the embryo

IMPLANTATION

Embedding of the blastocyst into the endometrium

VILLI

Finger-like projections

HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTRIPIN (hCG)

A hormone produced by the placenta that maintains the corpus luteum during pregnancy, the chemical that pregnancy kits identify in order to determine pregnancy

CHORION

Outer layer of the membranes enclosing the embryo and Amnions

AMNION

Inner layer of the fetal membranes, originating from inside the blastocyst, surrounding the fetus

FETAL MEMBRANES (bag of waters)

Any membrane that functions for the protection or nourishment of respiration or excretion of a developing fetus

BAG OF WATERS

The fetal membranes are referred to as what?

AMNIOTIC FLUID

Fluid formed by the amnion, consisting of about 98% water, and containing glucose, proteins, urea, lanugo (fine fetal hair) and vernix caseosa

LANUGO

Fine fetal hair

VERNIX CASEOSA

A white, cheesy substance covering the fetus's skin to protect it from the amniotic fluid

PLACENTA

A highly vascular organ connecting the mother and the fetus

COTYLEDONS

Irregular sections of the maternal side of the placenta

HUMAN PLACENTAL LACTOGEN (hPL)

Hormone that stimulates changes in maternal metabolism during pregnancy

RELAXIN

A hormone produced by the placenta that causes softening in the collagen connective tissue of the symphysis pubis and sacroiliac joint

UMBILICAL CORD

A cord that connects the fetus to the placenta

WHARTON'S JELLY

White gelatinous tissue making up the umbilical cord that cushions the vessels inside the cord.

GESTATION

Fetal development

PRE-EMBRYONIC STAGE (Stage I)

From fertilization thru 14 days; the time when the fertilized ovum travels thru the fallopian tube, differentiates into trophoblast and embryonic disc, and attaches to the endometrium

EMBRYONIC STAGE (stage II)

From week 3 thru 8 of fetal development; stage in which all body systems are formed

FRATERNAL TWINS

Twins that occur from two eggs fertilized by two sperm; they generally have two separate placentas, amnions, chorians and could be different genders; dizygotic twins

FETAL STAGE (stage III)

From weeks 9 thru 38 to 40; during this stage, all body systems are refined and begin to function

CEPHALOCAUDAL

Proceeding from head to toe

UMBILICAL ARTERIES

Two arteries in which blood flows from the internal iliac arteries in the fetus to the placenta

UMBILICAL VEIN

Vessel that brings clean, oxygenated fetal blood and nutrients back to the fetus from the placenta

DUCTUS VERNOSUS

A vein passing thru the liver and connecting the left umbilical vein with the inferior vena cava of the fetus

FORAMEN OVALE

An opening in the septum between the right atrium and the left atrium

DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS

A blood vessel in a fetus that connects the pulmonary artery to the aorta

YOLK SAC

A membranous sac attached to an embryo, providing early nourishment and functioning as the circulatory system of the embryo before internal circulation begins

SURFACTANT

A substance that decreases the surface tension of fluid inside the alveoli, allowing the lungs to expand

VIABILITY

Ability to live outside the uterus, usually 24 weeks

MECONIUM

The first fetal stool

OSSIFICATION

The hardening or calcification of soft tissue into a bonelike material, marking the transition from embryo to fetus

AMENORRHEA

Absence of menses

QUICKENING

The first fetal movements felt by the mother

BALLOTTEMENT

A sharp upward pushing against the uterine wall with a finger inserted into the vagina; used for diagnosing pregnancy by feeling the return impact of the displaced fetus

HEGAR'S SIGN

Softening of the lower uterine segment, present by the 8th week of pregnancy

GODDELL'S SIGN

An indication of pregnancy in which the cervix and vagina soften

FETAL HEART TONES (fht)

The fetal heartbeat

UTERINE SOUFFLE

Sound occurring at the same rate as the maternal pulse and caused by increased maternal blood flow to the uterus

FUNIC SOUFFLE

Sound occurring at the fetal heart rate, caused by fetal blood flowing thru the umbilical cord

BRAXTON HICKS CONTRACTIONS

Irregular, painless contractions occurring throughout pregnancy, also known as false labor

COLOSTRUM

A translucent yellow fluid rich in protein, antibodies and other substances to meet the needs of the newborn, produced in the breasts

SUPINE HYPOTENSIVE SYNDROME

Reduction in blood pressure that occurs when the mother lies supine; the heavy uterus presses on the inferior vena cava, resulting in reduced blood flow back to the right atrium

PHYSIOLOGIC ANEMIA OF PREGNANCY

Drop in iron that results from hemodilution, evidenced by a hematocrit of 34% to 40%; the number of white blood cells increases beginning in the second trimester.

HYPEREMESIS GRAVIDARUM

Prolonged vomiting related to pregnancy

LINEA NIGRA

A dark line on the abdomen from the umbilicus to the pubis

CHLOASMA

aka "Mask of Pregnancy"; darkening of the forehead, cheeks and area around the eyes

STRIAE GRAVIDARUM (aka Stretch marks)

marks that occur when the underlying connective tissue separates during periods of rapid growth

OXYTOCIN

Hormone produced by the posterior pituitary gland; stimulates uterine contractions

LET DOWN REFLEX

Release of milk after delivery

ULTRASOUND

A non invasive test used to outline the shape and determine the consistency of various organs and diagnose pregnancy; it can also be used to determine the exact position, size, and gender of the fetus and to identify some developmental anomalies

AMNIOCENTESIS

The withdrawal of amniotic fluid thru a needle inserted into the abdomen and the uterus as a means of gathering data about the developing fetus

PERCUTANEOUS UMBILICAL CORD SAMPLING

A test similar to amniocentesis done in the second and third trimesters in which the physician locates the fetal parts, identifies the placenta and umbilical cord by ultrasound, and aspirates fetal blood for analysis of chemical content; the test is useful in diagnosing inherited blood disorders, detecting fetal infection and determining acid-base balance.

ERYTHROBLASTOSIS FETALIS

A serious anemia, usually resulting from maternal antibodies to Rh-positive fetal blood

CHORIONIC VILLUS SAMPLING

Test in which a sample of placental tissue is taken from a woman's abdomen and placental tissue is aspirated thru a needle; the tissue, formed from the zygote reflects the genetic makeup of the fetus

NONSTRESS TEST (NST)

A test used to assess fetal movement and fetal heart rate

BIOPHYSICAL PROFILE

A test that assess five variables; fetal breathing, fetal movement, fetal tone, amniotic fluid volume, and fetal reaction

GRAVIDA

The number of pregnancies a woman has had

PARA

The number of deliveries after 24 weeks' gestation

ABORTION

The termination of a pregnancy before the fetus is viable (24 weeks)

PRETERM

Delivery after the 24th week, but before the 38th week

TERM

Delivery between 38 & 42 weeks

POSTTERM

Delivery after 42 weeks gestation

MISCARRIAGE

aka "Spontaneous abortion". Nonelective abortion that occurs within the first 20 weeks of pregnancy

NAEGELE'S RULE

A method used to determine date of birth taking the first day of the last menstrual period (LMP), subtracting 3 months, and adding 7 days

NULLIGRAVIDA

Woman who has never been pregnant

NULLIPARA

Woman who has never delivered an infant after 24 weeks gestation

PRIMAGRAVIDA

First pregnancy

PRIMAPARA

First delivery after 24 weeks' gestation

MULTIGRAVIDA

Woman who has been pregnant two or more times

MULTIPARA

Woman who has delivered two or more times after 24 weeks' gestation

GP/TPAL

An abbreviation for gravida, para/term, preterm, abortion, live birth

ABORTIFACIENTS

Abortion-inducing agents

DOULA

A supportive companion who accompanies the woman thru birth, providing physical and emotional support and information, and advocating for the woman and the family

IRON, FOLIC ACID, CALCIUM & B12

What nutrients should be included in the diet for preconception?

FERTILIZATION

This is the process of uniting 2 sex cells (ovum) into one

OUTER 1/3

The fertilization of the ovum happens where in the fallopian tube?

MORULA

The zygote (single cell) splits into 16 cells, at this time it is called a what?

BLASTOCYST

When the Morula enters the uterus, it is then called a what?

EMBRYOBLAST & TROPHOBLAST

The Blastocyst has two parts, they are called what?

EMBRYO

The Embryoblast (inner cells of the blastocyst) will eventually become the what?

EMBRYOBLAST

The inner cells of the blastocyst are called what?

TROPHOBLAST

The outer cells of the blastocyst are called what?

3-4 DAYS

It takes how long for the Zygote to divide into 16 cells and become the Morula?

EMBRYO

The inner mass of embryonic cells from the blastocyst (embryoblast) become the what?

TROPHOBLAST

The outer layer of the blastocyst, which is involved in implantation, hormone secretion, membrane and placental formation, is called what?

CHORION & AMNION

The Throphoblast splits into two parts, what are they called?

PLACENTA

The Chorion (from the trophoblast) will eventually become the what?

AMNIOTIC CAVITY

The Amnion (from the trophoblast) will eventually become the what?

INNER SAC (Amniotic cavity)

The Trophoblast splits into two parts, the Chorion and the Amnion. The Amnion is referred to as what?

OUTER SAC

The Trophoblast splits into two parts, the Chorion and the Amnion. The chorion is referred to as what?

ENDODERM, MESODERM, ECTODERM

The Embryoblast (embryonic disk) has three layers. What are they?

ENDODERM

The inner layer of the Embryoblast is called/referred to as what?

MESODERM

The middle layer of the Embryoblast is called/referred to as what?

ECTODERM

The outer layer of the Embryoblast is called/referred to as what?

ENDODERM (inner layer)

The Respiratory system, GI system, Liver, Pancreas, Bladder & Urethra are body systems which develop in which layer of the Embryoblast?

MESODERM (Middle layer)

The Muscular & skeletal system, heart, blood, blood vessels, spleen, urinary (renal system) and reproductive system are body systems which develop in which layer of the Embryoblast?

ECTODERM (Outer layer)

The Skin, Nervous system, Sense organs, mouth and anus are body systems which develop in which layer of the Embryoblast?

DECIDUA

Tissue that lines the uterine wall during pregnancy. The endometrium is called this once the fertilized egg is implanted into it.

7 & 5 DAYS

About ___(#) days after ovulation, or ___ (#) days after fertilization, the trophoblast burrows into the endometrium. Usually in the upper part of the uterus

FUNDUS

The fertilized blastocyst ideally implants where in the uterus?

VILLI

The trophoblast puts out ____, fingerlike projections, to anchor the blastocyst.

CHORION

The outer fetal membrane is the ____, formed from the trophoblast. The ____ villi degenerate, except for those attached to the uterine wall, which become the maternal side of the placenta.

AMNIOTIC SAC (bag of water)

The Chorion (outer sac) and the Amnion (inner sac) together form the what?

CHORION

This sac surrounds the amnion (inner sac that houses the fetus) and attaches to the uterine wall by villi, which become (the villi) the maternal side of the placenta

AMNION

This is the inner sac the houses the fetus (inside of the chorion - outer sac)

12

By what week, does the chorion become the placenta?

AMNIOTIC FLUID

This provides protective cushion, stabilizes baby temp, hydration, equalizes pressure, allows for growth, allow limbs not to adhear to skin or other membranes.

AMNIOTIC FLUID

This can be tested to check for congenital defects

12

The amniotic fluid develops by what week?

5-7 DAYS

it takes how many days for the fertilized ovum to reach the uterus?

HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin)

This stimulates the corpus luteum to produce estrogen & progesterone

11-12 WEEKS

The placenta takes over production of estrogen & progesterone by what weeks?

CHORION VILLI

What produces HCG

AMNIOTIC FLUID

This fluid is formed by the amniotic membrane (produced by the baby urinating)

CLEAR OR STRAW

The amniotic fluid should be what color?

PLACENTA

This is the organ for fetal respiration, nutrition and excretion

PLACENTA

This is formed by week 3, functions by week 11-12, organ for 02 exchange between fetus & mom. Has 2 sides

PROGESTERONE, ESTROGEN, HCG, HPL & RELAXIN

What 5 hormones does the placenta produce

PROGESTERONE

What hormone maintains uterine lining for implantation & reduces uterine contractions to prevent spontaneous abortion?

ESTROGEN

What hormone stimulates uterine growth, increases blood flow to uterine vessels, and stimulates breast ducts to prepare for lactation?

HCG

this causes the corpus luteum to persist and continue production of estrogen and progesterone and to sustain the pregnancy. Is detectable in maternal blood as soon as implantation occurs (usually 8-10 days after fertilization)

RELAXIN

This hormone causes relaxation or softening of CONNECTIVE tissue?

HPL

This hormone causes changes in maternal metabolism and causes decreased insulin sensitivity and utilization of glucose by mother. Helps make more glucose available to baby & also helps mother to prepare for lactation.

DIRTY DUNCAN

maternal side of the placenta is called what? (connected to the endometrium)

SHINY SCHULTZ

Fetal side of the placenta is called what?

TORCH

Acronym for prenatal blood testing

2

How many arteries are in the umbilical cord?

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