23.2

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In peas, a gene controls flower color such that R = purple and r = white. In an isolated pea patch, there are 36 purple flowers and 64 white flowers. Assuming Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, what is the value of q for this population?

e. 0.80

Which of the following is not a requirement for maintenance of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?

A) an increasing mutation rate

In which population is the frequency of the allele for brown feathers highest?

D. They are all the same.

In which population would it be least likely that an accident would significantly alter the frequency of the brown allele?

B. Population 2

Which population is most likely to be subject to the bottleneck effect?

A. Population 1

The probability of a mutation at a particular gene locus is ____, and the probability of a mutation in the genome of a particular individual is ____.

B) low; high

Which factor is the most important in producing the variability that occurs in each generation of humans?

B) sexual recombination

In modern terminology, diversity is understood to be a result of genetic variation. Sources of variation for evolution include all of the following except

a. mistakes in translation of structural genes.

Which of the following chromosomal mutations can increase the mass of DNA present in an organism's genome, creating superfluous DNA that may undergo further changes producing entirely new genes?

D) duplication

Genetic recombination is a crucial process in evolution. This statement is supported by the continuous existence of which of the following in evolving populations?

E) A, B, and C

Which is true regarding genetic variation in prokaryotes, where cell reproduction occurs via binary fission?

D) Prokaryotic genomes can experience increased genetic variation via both mutation and genetic recombination.

In DNA molecules, A-T base pairs are held to each other by two hydrogen bonds, whereas the more stable G-C base pairs are held to each other by three hydrogen bonds. If DNA mutability increases as DNA stability decreases, then which of the five exons of a hypothetical gene should be most highly conserved over evolutionary time (assuming no selection and no transposition occurs)?

C) Exon C

What is true of retrotransposons that is not generally true of non-replicative transposons?

D) A, B, and C are true.

In which way(s) should retrotransposons affect the genome that non-replicative transposons do not?

E) Both B and C are true.

In a large, sexually reproducing population, the frequency of an allele changes from 0.6 to 0.2. From this change, one can most logically assume that, in this environment,

E) the allele reduces fitness.

The following important concepts of population genetics are due to random events or chance except

D) natural selection.

Recognizing that small population size is likely to be linked to decreased viability, the best way to reverse this trend is to

a. cross your flies with flies from another lab.

If the frequency of a particular allele that is present in a small, isolated population of alpine plants should change due to a landslide that leaves an even smaller remnant of surviving plants, then what has occurred?

e. A, B, and C

Natural selection is most nearly the same as

c. genetic drift.

Through time, the movement of people on Earth has steadily increased. This has altered the course of human evolution by increasing

e. gene flow.

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