Henry VIII mistress during the time of the English Reformation, she gave birth to Elizabeth, future queen of England. One of the reasons Henry VIII wanted to get his marriage to Catherine annulled is so that he could marry her.
st bartholomew's day massacre
Mass slaying of Huguenots (Calvinists) in Paris, 1572.
paris is worth a mass
The reason Henry IV gave when he converted to Catholicism
council of troubles
Established by Duke of Alva. He executed over one thousand people (Protestants), many of them wealthy, and took their property as a way to stop the Dutch Revolt.
edict of nantes was in ____
__________ of prague was when the ambassador was thrown out of the window
The first phase of the Thirty Years' War , Frederick IV vs. Ferdinand II; Defenestration of Prague is included in this phase
The second phase of the Thirty Years' War in which the Catholic imperial army led by Albert of Wallenstein won a series of major victories against the Protestants.
The third phase of the Thirty Years' War marked by Sweden's entrance into the war under King Gustavus Adolphus; during this phase, the Protestants began to defeat the Catholics on many fronts.
France enters war on Swedish/Protestant side; Spanish defeat-->Peace of Westphalia
(Danish Phase) He was a catholic noble who replace Frederic IV and he also led the Imperial forces of Bohemia
Lutheran king with his centralized/disciplined protestant army --> Marches in and turns war around
in defense against the 7 sacraments
Henry the viii wrote __________
This scientist helped develop the sun-centered theory of the Universe (denounced by church)
on the revolutions of heavenly orbs
book by copernicus about heliocentric universe
the belief that the sun is the center of the universe
The finest representative of early modern skepticism. Created a new genre, the essay.
Influenced by Copernicus; Built observatory and collected data on the locations of stars and planets for over 20 years; His limited knowledge of mathematics prevented him from making much sense out of the data.
all the planets revolve around the Sun in elliptical not circular orbits; the Sun is not the exact center of each orbit.
Italian astronomer and mathematician who was the first to use a telescope to study the stars; demonstrated that different weights descend at the same rate and the law of inertia; made discoveries like seeing rocks and craters on the moon, Invented the experimental method, formulated the law of inertia, provided evidence for the Copernican theory
English politician, writer. Formalized the empirical method. Novum Organum. Inductive reasoning.
Bacon, attacked scholastic belief that most truth was already discovered and only needed explanations
the view that (a) knowledge comes from experience via the senses, and (b) science flourishes through observation and experiment
method of acquiring knowledge Promoted by Bacon in early 17th century in Novum Organum (Proceed from the specific/particular to the general)
Deductive thinker whose famous saying cogito, ergo sum ("I think, therefore I am") challenged the notion of truth as being derived from tradition and Scriptures.
discourse on method
Written by Descartes --> "I think therefore I am." Separation of mind and matter
English physician and scientist who described the circulation of the blood
demonstrating the glory and power of Catholic church- emphasized grandeur, emotion, movement , spaciousness and unity of a certain theme
Italian painter noted for his realistic depiction of religious subjects and his novel use of light
peter paul reubens
this architecture was stucco, fancy columns, try to brighten everything up
siglo de oro
name for the Spanish Golden Age: a period of flourishing in arts and literature in Spain, coinciding with the political rise and decline of the Spanish Hapsburg dynasty
English poet and playwright who introduced blank verse as a form of dramatic expression
is associated with Queen Elizabeth I's reign and is often considered to be the golden age in English history; authors include Shakespeare, Marlowe, and Spenser
dutch golden age
Dutch farming, advanced shipping, unified political leadership, profitable banking, seaborne empire, religious toleration --> led to a stronger economy. dutch east and west india companies dominated over-seas trading. ruled by a confederation. Decline due to death of William III (stadtholder), decline of naval and fishing industry
protestant work ethic
Sociological term used to define the Calvinist belief in hard work to illustrate selection in elite group
increase in prices (food most subject to increases = wheat) in 16th century-inflation-increased demand for goods-influx of gold and silver --> causes economic collapse in Spain, hurt domestic industries that were unable to export goods
This was the period of economic and political expansion, colonialism, and mercantilism that occurred in Europe
the practice of sorcery or magic, that was once a part of traditional village culture but was denounced as heresy by the catholic church in the middle ages
Bishop bousette believed that Louis was king by _________ and that nobody should question God's decisions
I am the state
l'etat c'est moi
Palace constructed by Louis XIV outside of Paris to glorify his rule and subdue the nobility.
revoked the edict of nantes
absolutism attempted to control religion and he hated the division so religious unity was essential -->Louis XIV __________ (liberty of Huguenots) = destruction of churches, the closing of schools, the catholic baptism of the Huguenots, and the exile of the Huguenot pastors who had refused to renounce their faith --> conversions (many were forced) /fled
Protestant sect in England hoping to "purify" the Anglican church of Roman Catholic traces in practice and organization.
English dissenters who broke from Church of England,--> pacificism, inner divinity, and social equity
act of toleration
Act of the English Parliament in 1689 that granted freedom of worship to Protestants who dissented from the Church of England, but not Catholics. Required dissenters to register their meeting locations and could not assemble in private homes.
The theory developed in early modern England and spread elsewhere that royal power should be subject to legal and legislative checks
bill of rights was signed by william and mary in ____
a male monarch or emperor (especially of Russia prior to 1917)
lay official of the Russian church; represented the interests of the tsar and extended control of the tsar over the church.
peter the great's attempt to make russia more like the rest of europe
charles ii of sweden
restored the monarchy of england after cromwell became a dictator
father of modern chemistry
royal society of london
the leading English scientific organization, made up of leading merchants, planters and even theologians, all devoted to the discoveries of scientific ideas.
royal academy of sciences
founded by Louis XIV to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research,one of the earliest academies of sciences.
a rule or body of rules of conduct inherent in human nature and essential to or binding upon human society
English materialist and political philosopher who advocated absolute sovereignty as the only kind of government that could resolve problems caused by the selfishness of human beings
Written by English philosopher Thomas Hobbes, maintained that sovereignty is ultimately derived from the people, who transfer it to the monarchy by implicit contract.
French scholar who contributed to the beginnings of biblical scholarship; questioned the reality of miracles and pointed to errors added in medieval times
This physicist developed the law of universal gravitation and further caused the decline of the old system of science
1687: Newton's book which established the law of universal gravitation and banished Ptolemy's laws and universe for good.
2 treatises of government
A novel written by John Locke. It was about how people were born good, and were naturally good, and that people had three natural rights, the right to life liberty and property, and how all what the government had to do was protect these rights, and if the government didn't then the people had the right to overthrow the current government and create a new one.
essay concerning human understanding
Written by Locke, tabula rasa theory.
created historical and critical dictionary in 1697 and pulled out david; attacked bible stories; religious skeptism
the dutch were a ____ power not a military power
five great farms
tariff union - free trade area
Manufacturing based in homes rather than in a factory, commonly found before the Industrial Revolution.
partitions of poland
Poland divided between Russia, Austria, and Prussia; changed the balance of Europe as a whole; Russia, Austria, and Prussia progressed passed France
system of government in which absolute monarchs ruled according to the principles of the Enlightenment
most aggressive reformer of his era; radical royal reformer of Austria; introduced legal reforms, freedom of the press, supported freedom of worship (even Protestants, Orthodox Christians, and Jews); abolished serfdom and ordered that peasants be paid for their labor with cash; most of his reforms were undone after his death
the Great; Prussian king; one of best educated and most cultured monarchs in the 18th century; seemed willing to make enlightened reforms (and he made some) but kept Prussia's serfdom and rigid social structure intact and avoidedany additional reforms; also enlarged Prussian Army; credited with making Prussia a great European power
seized throne from weak husband. Greatly influenced by Western European thinkers, considered freeing serfs, significantly expanded borders to the south and secured a warm-water port on the Black Sea
Calonne's successor, a member of the Assembly of Notables, who came to realize that Calonne was correct- new taxation had to be allowed
Those who favor extreme change
extremists who not only oppose change, but generally would like to turn the clock back to the way things were before
Land owned by the Catholic church confiscated by government, Clergy made elected --> Paris mob storms royal palace; commune seizes Assembly; Legislative Assembly falls (date0
The trade of spices from Asia and India to Italian and Muslim merchants who would then trade it to Europeans
English inventor of the spinning jenny
an early spinning machine with multiple spindles
English clergyman who invented the power loom
Scottish engineer and inventor whose improvements in the steam engine led to its wide use in industry
United States inventor of the mechanical cotton gin
elector of palatinate, King of Prussia
Administrators sent out from Paris to impose the will of the government on the people in the provinces.
careers open to talent
Napoleon - citizens theoretically were able to raise in government service purely according on their abilities, creation of new imperial nobility to reward most talented generals and officals
coalitions against napoleon
there were seven __________ staring from the Italian campaigns to Napoleon's defeat at Waterloo. These usually included the same great powers, Brittan, Austria, and Russia.
Austrian foreign minister who basically controlled the Congress of Vienna. Wanted to promote peace, conservatism, and the repression of libaral nationalism throughout Europe
An attempt to control food prices, as well as an ideal to have smaller community and property ownership. They did not favor an unregulated economy
Was a German philosopher --> 'three-step process' of thesis, antithesis, and synthesis
The brief period during 1815 when Napoleon made his last bid for power, deposing the French King and again becoming Emperor of France
This French noble family/dynasty was restored to the French throne under a constitutional monarchy after Napoleon
This was a Romantic writer who wrote prose and poetry
The period when all popes were French and resided in Avignon, France, starting with Clement V. This angered Italians and led to the Great Schism.
joan of ark
Fights with the French and helps them win the 100 years war (Important because that helps them get stronger monarchy and ends England political claims to the continent)
jacob burckhardt thesis
said the renaissance is rebirth of classical values from ancient greek and rome, Break from the middle ages because during the middle ages people were wearing a veil of common conceptions and religious assumptions and thinking as a group (renaissance = for the first time people saw themselves as individuals)
The Reconquering of Spain from the Muslims (moors) in 1492 by Ferdinand and Isabella. This unified Spain into a powerful nation-state.
The Holy Roman Emperor that attempted to centralize the administration by creating new institutions common to the entire empire, but he was successful in marriage alliances.
cuius regio, eius religio
Whose region, his religion, Settlement in the peace of Augsburg that allows the German princes the chose weather their principalities are going to be catholic or Lutheran (Not religious tolerance)
philosopher who believed in an absolute right or wrong; asked students pointed questions to make them use their reason, later became Socratic method
Greek philosopher; knowledge based on consideration of ideal forms outside the material world
Greek philosopher - knowledge based on observation of phenomena in material world
the idea that planets revolved in perfect circular orbits around the earth in the universe
Greek anatomist whose theories formed the basis of European medicine until the Renaissance
Greek philosopher- knowledge based on ideal forms outside the material world
Idea of virtue and that one should live a certain way, Live with dignity - This is how one should live and behave and do these things to be a good prince
Humanist expert on language - Interest in historical sources and reading actual sources - He studies these documents and discovers that the donation of Constantine is a forgery which undermines the papacy even further
Henry's Lord Chancellor and one of the leaders of the Catholic humanist party in England. He wrote utopia
they believe in the christian reign with jesus' return described in utopia
detailed body - Gods = subject - nude
geometric - comlumns - marble/granite used
churches = grand buildings - gothic (tall) - pointed arches - flying butresses
religious - used stone/wood - unaccurate bodies
wrote the Divine Comedy
book of the courtier
This was a book written by Castiglione. In it, he epitomized the main ideas of Italian humanism. It said a successful man was one who could integrate knowledge of ancient languages and history w/ athletic, musical, and military skills, all while being polite and exhibiting a high moral character
Dome, columns, triangular niches, Windows, Arch, courtyard, Basilica,
back to classics - marble, nude, accurate body - michelangelo
art which shows figures both religious or non-religious, more realistic, emphasis on nature, three dimensional with perspective, people are active and show great emotion
Artistic movement against the Renaissance ideals of symetry, balance, and simplicity; went against the perfection the High Renaissance created in art. Used elongated proportions, twisted poese and compression of space.
a leading German painter and engraver of the Renaissance
are the first in asia to begin spice trade
Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to China
cortez conquered the aztecs in ____
luther's 95 theses date
spanish armada defeated
pease of westphalia ends the 30 years war in ____
glorious revolution (william and mary)
peace of utrecht (ends the war of spanish succession)
french revolution beings
congress of Vienna