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Which of the following statements concerning the Spanish commercial system is most accurate?

The merchant guild in Seville had virtual monopoly rights over goods shipped to America and handled much of the silver received in return until the eighteenth century.

What was the primary difference between the Spanish and Portuguese empires?

Unlike the Spanish empire that was almost exclusively American, the Portuguese empire included colonies and outposts in Asia and Africa as well as Brazil.

Which of the following statements concerning the eighteenth century Spanish reforms in America is most accurate?

The French Intendancy system was introduced. Government improved, but the traditional patterns of influence and power among the Creole bureaucrats was disrupted.

Why were the encomiendas discontinued by the late 1620s?

The Spanish crown was unwilling to see the growth of a new nobility and the decline of the Indian population made them less attractive to descendants of conquerors.

What accounts for the general failure of eighteenth century colonial revolutions against Spanish and Portuguese rule?

The various racial and social groups, fearful of unsettling the social hierarchy, failed to act together to unseat the colonial governments.

What colony became the first major plantation zone, organized to produce a tropical crop in demand in Europe?

Brazil

By 1700, slaves comprised approximately what proportion of the Brazilian population?

one half

The Dominican friar Bartolome de Las Casas, a conquistador turned priest

became an ardent supporter of conversion of Indians and an advocate of Indian rights.

How did the Caribbean cities differ from those of Europe?

Caribbean cities were laid out in a grid plan.

What was the intent of the reformed Spanish policy of commercio libre?

to open trade to the Spanish colonies to cities other than Seville or Cadiz

Which of the following statements concerning the men who conquered much of Latin America for Spain is NOT accurate?

Leadership was based on reputation and past achievement.

In what way did the importation of American bullion negatively affect the Spanish economy?

The arrival of American treasure contributed to a sharp rise in prices and a general inflation.

How was the commercial experience of the Portuguese extended to the Americas?

The Portuguese experience in Africa and their involvement in slave trading was extended to the Americas.

The Catholic Church introduced all of the following to American life EXCEPT

the sense of independence from the state.

Why was the discovery of mercury in Peru critical to the colonial economy?

Mercury was indispensable to the extraction of silver from ore-bearing rock.

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