# World Geography- Chapter 1: How Geographers Look at the World

### 44 terms by hannabanana328

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### globe

a scale model of the Earth

### map

a symbolic representation of all or part of the planet

### cartography

designing or making maps

### map projection

a mathematical formula used to represent the curved surface of the Earth on the flat surface of a map

### Planar projection

a map created by projecting an image of he Earth onto a plane

### Cylindrical projection

a map of Earth created by projecting Earth's image onto a cylinder

### Conic projection

a map of the Earth created by placing a cone over part of an Earth model

### Interrupted Projection

a map of the Earth in which the Earth's surface appears cut along arbitrary lines, each section project separately

### location

a specific place on the Earth

### Grid System

pattern formed as the lines of latitude and longitude cross one another

### Hemisphere

half of a sphere or globe

### latitude

distance north or south from the equator measured in degrees

### Equator

the parallel line of 0 degrees latitude from which other latitudes are calculated

### longitude

distance measured by degrees or time east or west of the prime meridian

### Prime Meridian

the meridian measured 0 degrees longitude from witch other longitudes are calculated

### Absolute Location

the exact position of a place on Earth's surface

### Northern Hemisphere

the half of the Earth that lies north of the Equator

### Southern Hemisphere

the half of the Earth that lies south of the Equator

### Eastern Hemisphere

the part of the Earth east of the Atlantic ocean including Europe, Asia, Australia, and Africa; 20ºW and 160ºE often considered its boundaries

### Western Hemisphere

the half of the Earth compromising North and South America and surrounding waters; longitudes 20ºW ans 160ºE often considered its boundaries

### key

lists and explains the symbols, colors, and lines used on the map; the key is also known as the legend

### compass rose

indicates directions; north, south, east, west

### cardinal directions

north, south, east, and west; usually indicated with arrows or the points of a star

### intermediate directions

northeast, northwest, southeast, and southwest

### scale bar

shows the relationship between map measurements and actual distances on Earth

### scale

a consistent, proportional relationship between the measurements shown on the map and the measurements of Earth's surface

### relative location

the location of one place in relationship to another

### physical map

shows the shape of the Earth's physical features

### topography

shape of the Earth's physical features

### relief

the elevations or inequalities of a land surface

### elevation

the height about the sea level

### political map

shows the boundaries and locations of political units such as countries, states, counties, cities, and towns

determined by humans rather than by nature

### site

refers to the specific location of a place, including its physical setting

### situation

expression of relative location

### place

particular space with physical and human meaning

### region

areas with similar characteristics

### formal regions

defined by human common characteristics

### functional regions

a central place and the surrounding area linked to it

### perceptual regions

defined by popular feelings and images rather than by objective data

### ecosystem

a community of plants and animals that depend upon one another, and their surroundings for survival

### movement

the act or process of changing place or position

### human-environment interaction

the study of the interrelationship between people and their physical environment

### geographic information systems (GIS)

computer tools that process and organize data and satellite images with other types of information gathered by geographers and other scientists

Example: