Honors Chem Midterm Review Sheet

77 terms by eervin 

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

chemistry

the study of matter and it's changes

modern world: age of _____

plastics

matter

anything that has mass and takes up space

vapor

gaseous state of a substance that is generally a liquid or a solid at room temp.

solid

particles tightly packed, defined shape and volume

liquid

expands when heated, takes shape of the container, particles are semi-flexible

gas

takes shape and volume of container, particles are far apart

scientific method

observation>hypothesis>experiment>theory

theory

braod and extensively tested explanation of why experiments give certain results. can't be proven

law

concise statement that summerizes the results of many observations and experiments. can be proven, but can't be explained

hypothesis

a proposed explanation or reason for what is observed

how to study chemistry

understand and apply concepts by using your textbook, experiments tests and quizzes

physical properties

state, color, meling point, boiling point, density

physical changes

cutting, grinding, bending, etc.

distillation

boiling liquid to produce a vapor that is then condensed again into a liquid. it purifies the liquid

homogeneous mixtures

completely uniform in composition (ex. salt water)
also called a solution

heterogeneous mixtures

not uniform in composition (ex. chocolate chip cookie)

mixture

either hetero. or homo.
a physical blend of two or more substances that is seperable by hand

compound

a substance that can be separated into simpler substances only by chemical means

qualitative

results given in a descriptive, nonnumeric form

quantitative

results given in definite numbers and units

accuracy

the measure of how close a measurement is to the actual, true value

precision

the measure of how close measurements are to one another

sigfig rule on leading zeros

they don't count ever (sigfigs)

sigfig rule on in-between zeros

they always count (sigfigs)

sigfig rule on zeros at the end

they only count if there is a decimal (sigfigs)

mega(M)

10^6

kilo(k)

10^3

deci(d)

10^-1

centi(c)

10^-2

milli(m)

10^-3

micro(μ)

10^-6

nano(n)

10^-9

pico(p)

10^-12

how to become a better problem solver

develop a plan

the heart of problem solving

analyze>calculate>evaluate

density (equation)

m/v

relationship b/w numerator and denominator in a conversion factor

numerator is equivalent to denominator

smallest particle of an element that retains all its properties

atom

Democritus

first suggested the idea of atoms

Dalton's Atomic Theory

•invisible particles
•atoms of same element are identicle
•atoms of different elements can physically mix together in simple whole-number ratios
•atoms of 1 element are never changed into atoms of another element as a result of a chemical reaction

JJ Thompson

discovered the electron

Robert A. Millikan

discovered the quantity carried by electron

E. Goldstein

discovered protons

James Chadwick

discovered neutrons

Ernest Rutherford

discovered the nucleous

Rutherford Experiment

Gold foil method**

nucleus

center of an atom, heaviest part, made up of protons and electrons

electron

negatively charged, form a cloud around the nucleus

proton

positively charged

neutron

no charge at all

atomic number

•the number over the chemical symbol of the periodic table
•tells how many protons are in the element

mass number

•the sum of the number of neutrons and protons in an atomic nucleus
•under the chemical symbol

finding isotopes

different number of neutrons=different number of mass
(ex. Ne-20: 10p, 10n, 10e; Ne-21: 10p, 11n, 10e; Ne-22: 10p, 12n, 10e)

isotopes

atoms that have the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons

how to find the atomic mass of a series of isotopes

average the masses

anion

ions that end in "-ide"

the electrical charge of a cation

positive charge

cation

any atom or group of atoms that has a positive charge, meaning one or more electron has been taken away
⁺sign is directly after the chemical symbol

anion

any atom or group of atoms that has a negative charge, meaning one or more electrom has been added
⁻sign is directly after the chemical symbol

ionic compounds

composed of metal cations and nonmetal anions (ex. sodium chloride)

molecular compounds

composed of atoms of 2 nonmetal anions (ex. carbon monoxide)

when a group of the periodic table becomes ions

ionic charge is positive and numerically equal to the group when positive/when negative subtract the group number from 8 to get the number** see pages 143-145

Avagadro's number

6.23*10^23
number of representative particles

1 mole (quantity)

6.022*10^23 atoms
6.022*10^23 molecules
6.022*10^23 ions

diatomic elements

(NIH)
N₂O₂F₂Cl₂Br₂I₂H₂

volume of 1 mole of liquid at STP

22.4 L

chemical reaction symbols

+ add reactants
--> yield; products come after this symbol
<--> reversable
(s) (l) (g) (aq) states
arrow with triangle on top heat was used
arrow with "Pt" on top catalyst used

types of chemical reactions

combination
decomposition
combustion
single displacement
double displacement (acid-base or precipitate)

chemical equations must be balanced so that they:_______ (reason)

obey the the law of conservation of mass

catalyst

something that speeds up a chemical reaction, but isn't used up

the calculation of quantities in chemical equations

stoichiomentry

what is conserved in a chemical reation

atoms and mass

relationship between mass of reactants and products

they are equal

percent yield (equation)

(actual yield (given) ÷ theoretical yield (found in lab))*100%

limiting reagent

determines the amount of product that can be formed in a reaction

excess reagent

reactant not completely used in a reaction

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set